Здравоохранение и культура древней Японии

Интересно, что университетский значок- талисман — это бобр, а работал Брэйди на ЭВМ в Бевертоне (Beaverton, т.е. «Бобрград»). Брэйди разделяет скептицизм Робинсона. «По опыту решения задачи с четырьмя состояниями я знаю, что задача с пятью состояниями еще далека от решения. Дело заключается в том, чтобы решить, остановится или нет та или иная «далеко убежавшая» машина. По мере того как машины будут становиться сложнее, решить этот вопрос будет труднее. В конечном итоге будут затронуты очень глубокие и нерешенные математические проблемы. Проблемы, связанные с остановом каждой индивидуальной машины на чистой ленте, начиная с какого-то момента, перерастают, по. существу, в отдельные математические теоремы.»

Здравоохранение в Японии; взрывной вулканизм; война с вирусами; птичьи карты.

В США, где процветает индивидуализм во всех формах, человек, попавший в больницу, «числится лишь по номеру на манжете его стерильного халата, одинакового для мужчин и женщин, получает больничную еду и оказывается почти полностью изолированным от общества». В Японии же, где каждый человек традиционно рассматривается как часть семьи и коллектива и где все школьники ходят в форме, пациенты больниц не одеты в одинаковые халаты. Напротив, они имеют право носить собственные пижамы или ночные сорочки и часто получают эти вещи в подарок от друзей. Родственники больных или специально нанятые люди стирают эту одежду и приносят им домашнюю пищу, хотя в любой больнице пациенты обеспечиваются трехразовым питанием. Друзья больного считают своим долгом регулярно навещать его и приносить подарки, не без оснований рассчитывая на ответную любезность с его стороны после выздоровления. Что же касается японских врачей, то они давно уже привыкли к компромиссам между требованиями гигиены, традициями общества и потребностями личности. Разве можно отказать больному в таких маленьких слабостях, как выбор еды или одежды, даже если это приведет к некоторым неудобствам для персонала больницы или незначительному риску для самого пациента.

Известно, что положение больных неодинаково в различных обществах. Так, в США к пациенту всегда относятся в некотором смысле как к парии. Даже если у него нет инфекционного заболевания, его все равно изолируют и требуют беспрекословного подчинения больничному распорядку. Японец же, даже не имеющий свидетельства о рождении (соответствующие записи вносятся в общесемейные документы), попав в больницу, сохраняет прочные связи с миром здоровых людей. Было

бы не совсем верно объяснять эту разницу в отношении к больным в американском и японском обществах одними лишь различиями в экономике или эпидемиологии, большое значение здесь имеют культурные традиции и уклад жизни в этих странах.

 

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