Зоны Френеля

Поскольку излучения соседних зон находятся в противофазе, они гасят друг друга. Из-за того что свет от периферийных зон распространяется под большим углом к экрану, вклад в освещенность экрана уменьшается с увеличением номера зоны. В результате освещенность в центре области тени оказывается в четыре раза меньше, чем та, которую могла бы создать одна лишь первая зона.

Рассмотрим точку в темном кольце. Если смотреть из нее на шарик, то он уже не будет располагаться по центру зон Френеля. Таким образом, некоторые зоны вблизи границы шарика оказываются открытыми лишь частично. В результате излучения от зон частично гасят друг друга и соответствующая точка на экране оказывается темной.

Рассмотрим теперь точку в первом светлом кольце. Из этой точки шарик кажется еще больше смещенным относительно центра зон Френеля. И в этом случае некоторые зоны вблизи шарика оказываются открытыми лишь частично. Но их совместное излучение приводит к освещению соответствующего места на экране.

Если бы шарик не был круглым в плоскости сечения, перпендикулярной лазерному лучу, дифракционные кольца были бы искажены или исчезли бы вовсе. В этом случае излучение волновых источников по одну сторону шарика не было бы уравновешено излучением источников с противоположной стороны шарика. В терминах зон Френеля это означает, что ближайшие к границе шарика зоны открыты не полностью из-за того, что шарик не симметричен. Результирующая картина на экране может оказаться весьма сложной. Если асимметрия значительна, то излучения от открытых участков зон могут погасить друг друга и область тени окажется темной.

 

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