Более высокие формы организации

По мере развития более высоких форм организации производительных сил, усиления кооперации труда происходит вовлечение в единый производственный процесс как наличных, так и вновь создаваемых элементов производительных сил с неодинаковым научно-техническим уровнем. Возникает несопряженность этих уровней, поразному проявляющаяся в рамках разных форм организации производительных сил. В рамках мирового хозяйства это технологический разрыв между развитыми и развивающимися странами; в масштабах национальной экономики это наличие технически передовых, наукоемких производств (например, электроники или космической техники) и отраслей, основанных на традиционной технологии, существующей многие десятилетия (например, металлорезание, господствующие методы выращивания растений и животных); в межобъектных формах кооперации часто объединяются предприятия с разным техническим уровнем; внутри производства могут использоваться виды оборудования, несопряженные по своим техническим параметрам, да и на каждом рабочем месте может функционировать оборудование, соединяющее в себе несогласованные полезные свойства (например, металлорежущий станок с числовым программным управлением). Разнообразные проявления несопряженности научно-технических уровней порождают, как уже отмечалось, излишек или недостаток соответствующих полезных свойств, что ведет к систематическим потерям потенциальных возможностей экономии общественного труда.

Следовательно, разделение и кооперация труда вызывают к жизни противоречия, связанные с неравномерностью научно-технического прогресса. Эти противоречия носят, однако, конструктивный, созидательный характер. Сталкивая между собой, соединяя в единый организм отдельные элементы производительных сил, в разной мере и в разных формах материализующих в себе научные знания, процесс обобществления производства повышает их сопряженность, согласованность. Более того, диспропорции в уровнях науки и техники, возникновение «точек разрыва», где какаялибо научная идея, вид техники, потребительной стоимости перестает «работать» без сопряженной с ними идеи, техники, полезного свойства, становятся мощным ускорителем научно-технического прогресса. В целом же процесс обобществления производительных сил способствует выравниванию научно-технических уровней, позволяет получать больший экономический эффект при одной и той же сумме научных знаний.

 

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