Центр нового мировоззрения

То обстоятельство, что центром нового мировоззрения стал человек, вело к отрицанию всех истин, имевших «божественное» происхождение, к их замене убежденностью человека в верности и незаменимости своих собственных ощущений, своего опыта и разума. В эту эпоху «человек впервые стал думать, что реально и субъективночувственно видимая им картина мира и есть самая настоящая его картина, что это не выдумка, не иллюзия, не ошибка зрения и не умозрительный эмпиризм, но то, что мы видим своими глазами, — это и есть на самом деле» [55, с. 55]. Экспериментальная наука явилась в этом отношении детищем веры человека Возрождения в свое чувственное восприятие. Тем самым на месте априорного, догматического, а потому и схоластического мировоззрения, бывшего по самой своей природе ненаучным, стало складываться противоположное мировоззрение — открытое для реалистического, а значит, и научного отражения мира. Разум и опыт стали в эту эпоху общественно принятыми основами познания.

Обращение к практическому опыту и непосредственному восприятию человека не только открывало дорогу к научному истолкованию мира, но и делало достижения науки общедоступными. В этом сама суть научного мировоззрения, апеллирующего к общему разуму и требующего доказательств . Поэтому рациональное (т. е. с позиций разума) восприятие мира имело двоякий эффект — развитие опытной науки и ее демократизацию.

Процесс демократизации научных знаний наталкивался, однако, с самого начала на ограниченность непосредственного восприятия, поскольку научные теории, хотя они и возникали на опытной основе, довольно быстро стали приходить в противоречие со «здравым смыслом».

 

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