Другая сторона научного труда

Другая сторона научного труда связана не с его родовыми признаками, а с особенностями «обслуживаемых» им видов конкретного труда, с различиями предметов научного познания. В каждой сфере конкретного труда углубление познания означает нарастание его сложности, повышение «сопротивляемости» объекта исследований; каждая новая научная истина является при прочих равных условиях более «наукоемкой» как в интеллектуальном, так и в материальном смысле. Эта тенденция замедляет повышение производительности научного труда, ведет наряду с другими причинами к увеличению доли затрат на развитие науки. Ее преодолению способствует усиление всеобщего характера научного труда. В научном труде каждого поколения участвует труд его предшественников; складывается и пространственная всеобщность науки. Такая безграничная кооперация научного труда повышает его производительность, ускоряет развитие науки.

Как и всякий другой полезный труд, научный труд может быть сведен к абстрактному труду, поскольку он выражает определенную величину затрат рабочего времени, необходимую для производства новых знаний, означает «производительное расходование человеческого мозга, мускулов, нервов рук и т. д. ив этом смысле — один и тот же человеческий труд».

Научный труд основан на естественных силах труда, сложившихся в процессе эволюции и присущих любому человеку. Конкретный и абстрактный — это один и тот же труд, обращенный в первом случае к окружающему человеку внешнему миру, а во втором — к самому человеку, к его естественным силам и общественным формам их реализации. Поэтому в действительности они едины, а полная однородность абстрактного труда, не зависящая от его конкретной формы, есть научное допущение.

 

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