Экономическая природа научных знаний

Условным в определенном смысле является применение понятий стоимости и потребительной стоимости к научным знаниям, носящим фундаментальный характер, т. е. непосредственно не связанным с другими видами труда, а также к знаниям, имеющим мировоззренческий, идеологический характер. Следует также оговориться, что научные знания могут быть результатом не только специализированного труда, т. е. труда ученых, но и всякого иного интеллектуального труда, способствующего познанию и использованию законов развития природы и общества.

Фундаментальная наука (т. е. научные знания о законах развития природы и общества, не имеющие непосредственного прикладного значения) имеет самостоятельную ценность как непреходящая часть духовной культуры человечества; в этом смысле сводить науку к экономическим категориям нельзя. Однако если рассматривать фундаментальные научные знания как органическую часть всей науки, то с точки зрения общественного труда они являются «промежуточной» продукцией науки, благодаря которой создается ее «конечная» продукция — прикладные научные знания, непосредственно связанные с совершенствованием других видов конкретного труда. Всеобщий характер научного труда приводит в конечном счете к тому, что сегодняшние фундаментальные, абстрактные знания превращаются завтра в "прикладные научные знания, в качественно новые производительные силы.

Что касается мировоззренческих, идеологических функций научных знаний, то, несмотря на их огромную самостоятельную роль и социальную значимость, в реальной действительности это не особая область знаний, а их важная сторона, специфическая общественная функция. Каждая область научных знаний выполняет и мировоззренческую, и производительную функцию в их конкретно-историческом выражении. Уже в Древнем Мире первые астрономические знания использовались жрецами не только для воздействия на массы и утверждения своего привилегированного положения, но и для вполне конкретных производственных целей — регулирования сельскохозяйственного труда. Конечно, не всякие знания служат развитию производительных сил, но, входя в систему общественных отношений, они становятся частью данной формации со всеми ее особенностями. Иными словами, хотя потребительная стоимость научных знаний как продукта науки не сводится к их производительной функции, сами научные знания едины и их стоимость неразложима по функциям.

 

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