Экономия труда

Экономия труда получает свое реальное выражение не только на стадии производства годового общественного продукта как увеличение массы потребительных стоимостей («физического объема» производства) на единицу затрат общественного труда, живого и овеществленного, но и на этапах первичного распределения, перераспределения и использования общественного продукта. Этапы движения и формы реализации экономии труда рассматриваются в данной главе лишь в той мере, в какой это непосредственно связано с воспроизводственной ролью научно-технического прогресса; однако последующее изложение было бы неполным без доказательства реальности этой категории как вполне конкретного, «осязаемого» элемента экономических отношений.

 И теоретически, и практически временная несопоставимость может быть максимально преодолена в результате оценки объема продукции каждого года в текущей стоимости и стоимости предшествующего года и построения на основе «цепного метода» сопоставимого ряда величин годового общественного продукта.

Формы реализации и движения экономии труда как главного результата научно-технического прогресса определяются господствующими общественными отношениями, в первую очередь отношениями собственности, присвоения. В капиталистических условиях, когда научно-технический прогресс выступает как свойство капитала, эффект науки сливается с процессом воспроизводства капитала, становится фактором его самовозрастания. Превращаясь при социализме в непосредственную производительную силу труда, наука существует и развивается вместе с обобществленным трудом, а ее эффект становится объектом общественного присвоения. Если свести роль науки при капитализме и социализме к формуле, отражающей объективный критерий их развития, то в первом случае это превращение эффекта науки в источник накопления капитала, во втором — в основной источник повышения общественного благосостояния.

 

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