Естественные и общественные производительные силы

Трактовка общественных производительных сил лишь как материально-вещественных возможна, но она недостаточна, поскольку главным элементом последних является рабочая сила. Это значит, что общественные производительные силы, понимаемые в широком смысле, включают как рабочую силу с ее качественными характеристиками, так и те накопленные непроизводственные фонды и жизненные средства, которые обеспечивают ее воспроизводство.

Общественные производительные силы — это действительно та сила, которая «оторвала» человека от непосредственно доступного ему естественного базиса и с помощью труда позволяет все больше увеличивать этот отрыв. Поэтому существование и развитие общественных производительных сил тождественны существованию и развитию человечества. Одновременно общественные производительные силы могут существовать и развиваться только на своей естественной основе. Более того, все их элементы всегда сохраняют свое «естественное происхождение», поскольку законы природы и законы человеческого бытия в реальной действительности нераздельны. Единство естественных и общественных производительных сил выражается прежде всего в том, что воспроизводство непосредственной жизни, как отмечал Ф. Энгельс, предполагает воспроизводство самого человека, продолжение рода, в основе которого лежат биологические процессы [1, т. 21, с. 25—26]. Хотя законы народонаселения с самого начала истории человечества носили социальный характер, т. е. формировались под воздействием господствовавших общественных отношений, это, однако, никогда не отменяло их биологической основы. На ранних стадиях развития, когда зависимость человека от природы была наивысшей, естественное движение населения происходило очень медленно, поскольку физиологическому максимуму рождаемости соответствовала исключительно высокая смертность, особенно детская. Ограниченность и неустойчивость источников существования регулировали в этих условиях прирост населения за счет смертности.

Повышение уровня развития общественных производительных сил, особенно в эпоху после промышленной революции, привело к изменению режима воспроизводства населения — ускорению его естественного прироста, ограниченного в будущем экологическими условиями существования человечества.

Если за 7 тысячелетий, предшествовавших началу новой истории (конец XVIII — начало XIX в.) население земного шара увеличилось в 100— 200 раз, т. е. прирост был равен в среднем 7—8 % за столетие, то в XIX в. этот прирост составил 60—90 %, а в XX в. численность населения увеличится в 3,5—4 раза [47, с. 239—240]. Однако такой взрывообразный рост населения может продолжаться лишь ограниченное время — 2—3 столетия. Биологические основы естественного движения населения будут проявляться уже не как стихийные тенденции рождаемости и в определенной мере смертности, а как экологические ограничения общего увеличения населения. Оставаясь частью живого мира, биосферы, человечество может существовать лишь при сохранении определенного уровня экологического равновесия. По существующим оценкам, возможный предел численности населения в мире, определяемый экологическими условиями, составит 10—12 млрд. человек.

 

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