Формирование общественного характера

Всеобщий труд формирует общественный характер производительных сил «во времени», тогда как совместный — «в пространстве». Техника, которая составляет основную часть современных производительных сил, обязана своим происхождением научным идеям XIX в., а в некоторых случаях и XVIII в. Принципы работы парового двигателя и электромотора, доменного процесса и ткачества, электросвязи и железнодорожного транспорта — все это материализация научных знаний и практического опыта наших предков. Конечно, жизненный цикл научных открытий и изобретений — разный, но в современную эпоху в любой момент времени сумма научных знаний, которыми пользуется человечество, в своей основной части получена «по наследству», а вновь приобретаемые знания будут служить многим будущим поколениям.

Всеобщность научных знаний и лежащего в их основе труда имеет не только временной, но и пространственный свет, хотя первый и определяет главное отличие всеобщего Иуда от совместного. По своей природе научные знания интернациональны, они не знают границ. И если степень разиития совместного труда зависит от реального уровня разделения труда и интенсивности обмена продуктами и услугами, то распространение научных знаний не обязательно связано С отношениями обмена. Если абстрагироваться от различного рода естественных или искусственных ограничений, то можно говорить о всеобщей доступности научных знаний, о всемирном характере развития науки. Говоря о взаимосвязи всеобщего и совместного труда, надо также подчеркнуть, что и всеобщий труд все больше приобретает в каждый данный момент совместный характер; это эквивалентно тенденции возникновения и углубления разделения труда, его кооперации в самой науке.

Всеобщий труд, так же как и совместный, материализуется в вещественных элементах производительных сил, прежде всего в воспроизводимых трудом средствах производства. Однако если совместный труд «умирает» вместе с произведенными на его основе благами, то всеобщий труд «переживает» их и вновь соединяется с совместным трудом, принадлежащим новому времени. Производство паровой машины Уатта в течение многих десятилетий расширялось и развивалось, но исходные идеи оставались в ней неизменными, первоначальный принцип преобразования тепловой энергии в механическую продолжал действовать как даровая сила природы.

 

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