Границы производственных возможностей

Границы производственных возможностей непрерывно расширяются в результате замены одних видов ресурсов другими; замещающие ресурсы — будь то новые машины, новые виды материалов или новые источники энергии — во все большей мере обязаны своим происхождением науке, они более наукоемки. Меняется структура экономического роста, она становится более сложной — экстенсивные формы развития смещаются из отраслей, где непосредственно экономится труд, в отрасли, где создаются предпосылки для такой экономии. Очевидно также, что во всех без исключения сферах труда действует закон его экономии, т. е. чем быстрее совершенствуются замещающие производства, виды труда, тем быстрее и эффективнее происходит процесс замещения.

Наука и сферы труда, обеспечивающие материализацию ее достижений, должны поэтому увеличивать свою долю в распределении всего общественного труда. Вероятно, этот процесс по своим масштабам будет столь же значительным, как вытеснение в XIX—XX вв. сельскохозяйственного труда промышленным. Развитие науки как вширь, так и вглубь, непрерывная перестройка производства на этой основе становятся, таким образом, исходным материальным условием интенсификации всего общественного производства.

Экономия труда и умножение общественных потребностей на основе научно-технического прогресса объясняют исторически возникшее единство науки, техники и экономики, решающую роль материализации научных знаний в развитии производительных сил. Это единство складывалось постепенно, всегда было относительно — в силу определенной независимости отдельных элементов общественных формаций, закономерностей их развития.

Превращение науки в основной источник повышения производительной силы общественного труда придает решающее значение раскрытию закономерностей развития самой науки и практическому овладению силами научного познания. Трудности, лежащие на этом пути, связаны не только с осуществлением революционных социальных сдвигов, но и с закономерностями развития самой науки, ее превращения в технику. Наука была и остается не только частью производительных сил, но и «всеобщим духовным (курсив мой. — А.А.) продуктом общественного развития» [1, т. 48, с. 37], частью социокультурных процессов, мировоззрения, общественной психологии. Все это в сочетании со спецификой научного труда — его всеобщностью (пространственной и временной), интеллектуальным характером, особой ролью личного фактора, неопределенностью результатов — придает научно-техническому прогрессу черты, несводимые к его экономическому результату, к функционированию производительных сил.

 

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