Избыток научных знаний

При «избытке» научных знаний, материализованных в рабочей силе, становится излишней часть затрат на ее подготовку, возникают социальная неудовлетворенность и сопутствующие ей негативные явления, могут происходить перерасход живого труда и возрастание вновь созданной стоимости сверх общественно необходимого уровня. В силу большой мобильности научных знаний, материализованных в человеке, такой «излишек» может носить только временный характер, неиспользованная часть знаний будет попросту утеряна.

Если сравнивать эти два случая несопряженности с точки зрения всего процесса воспроизводства, научно-технического прогресса, то «избыток» научных знаний, материализованных в человеке, чреват меньшими потерями общественного труда, чем их недостаток. Помимо сказанного выше, к этому выводу подводит учет того очевидного обстоятельства, что труд высокой квалификации способен частично компенсировать недостатки техники, а затраты общественного труда на создание «излишка» технического уровня средств производства являются ничем не восполнимыми потерями, которые неквалифицированный труд по природе своей компенсировать не может. Более того, необходим определенный резерв образовательноквалификационного потенциала, позволяющий активно приспосабливать технику к непрерывно меняющимся условиям производства.

Обращаясь к материализации научных знаний в средствах производства необходимо ответить на главный вопрос: каким образом этот процесс влияет на повышение производительности труда и его экономию, на увеличение годового продукта как стоимости вновь созданной и перенесенной и как совокупности потребительных стоимостей? Для этого необходимо обратиться к некоторым положениям теории воспроизводства основного капитала К Маркса. Развивая свою концепцию стоимости и потребительной стоимости применительно к производительному капиталу, К. Маркс ввел понятия органического и технического строения капитала; первое понятие связано с формированием стоимости, второе — потребительной стоимости.

 

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