Известная сталь

Сталь была известна издавна; она производилась с незапамятных времен в Китае и Индии. В Европе производство стали было переоткрыто в XVIII в., но оно оставалось слишком дорогим для массового использования. В необходимых масштабах проблема была полуэмпирически решена Г. Бессемером (1856 г.), а на научной основе —С. Дж. Томасом (1878 г.). Сталь стала получаться в результате продувки воздуха через расплавленный чугун (бессемеровский процесс) и введения основной футеровки для поглощения вредных примесей фосфора (томасовский процесс). В итоге производство машин получило в необходимых масштабах свой материал. Однако для кардинального решения проблемы, возникшей еще в конце XVIII в., понадобилось почти 100 лет.

Столь длинный путь от возникновения практической проблемы до ее решения объяснялся, с одной стороны, отсутствием достаточных научных предпосылок, а с другой — невозможностью получения необходимых для производства результатов чисто эмпирическим путем. Известно, что металлургические процессы в основе своей — термохимические, а чугун, сталь и железо отличаются друг от друга содержанием углерода. Очевидно, что решение этой задачи требовало соответствующего уровня развития химии, которая в конце XVIII в. была в зачаточном состоянии. Понадобились длительная эволюция научной химии, открытие основных химических элементов и химических реакций с их участием, в том числе с участием кислорода, определение количественных соотношений этих реакций, чтобы сложилось понимание химической природы металлургических процессов и чтобы эти процессы были перестроены на научной основе.

Приведенный пример показывает также, что возможности эмпирического совершенствования техники очень значительны; в черной металлургии они почти 100 лет после начала первой промышленной революции позволяли, хотя и не слишком быстро, решать назревавшие практические проблемы. Такие возможности не исчерпаны в ряде отраслей и по сегодняшний день.

 

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