Коллективные формы

Как это доказано этнографией, археологией и другими науками, первыми формами хозяйственной деятельности человека были коллективные формы с внутренним, «чисто естественного происхождения» разделением труда, диктуемым полом, возрастом и индивидуальными способностями. Первобытное внутриобщинное разделение труда закреплялось в трудовых навыках и соответствующих орудиях труда, вело к повышению производственных возможностей человека.

Первая материальная предпосылка общественного разделения труда возникла в результате производства жизненных средств сверх минимума, необходимого для поддержания существования человека . Такой относительный излишек мог возникнуть лишь в сельском хозяйстве, так как только там производились самые насущные жизненные средства и только там даровые силы природы позволяли достичь такого уровня производительности труда, который давал излишек этих жизненных средств, ставший первой устойчивой формой прибавочного продукта. Обмен этими излишками, носивший сначала случайный, а затем систематический характер, породил зачатки общественного разделения труда, возможность существования на основе такого обмена ремесленного производства, а затем и торговли.

Возникновение и развитие отраслей, не производящих, жизненных средств и часто далеко отстоящих от них в системе общественного разделения труда, увеличивали ту часть продукции, которая должна была идти в сферу обмена, оборота произведенных благ и услуг. Если на первой стадии норма обмена (доля продукции, поступающей в экономический оборот) была ограничена нормой прибавочного продукта, то в дальнейшем, в процессе углубления разделения труда, когда продукция все больше производилась не для непосредственного потребления, норма обмена далеко оторвалась от нормы прибавочного продукта.



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