Кооперация и углубление разделения общественного труда

Кооперация и углубление разделения общественного труда, обобществление производства связывают в единое целое все более отдаленные друг от друга во времени и в пространстве элементы производительных сил, что вызывает необходимость преодоления этой разобщенности и опережающего роста инфраструктурных затрат.

Повышение уровня образования и квалификации рабочей силы, сложности труда становится возможным только в результате увеличения затрат труда, направленных на формирование физических и интеллектуальных способностей человека. Обеспечение полной занятости в соответствии с социальными потребностями в труде уже само по себе ведет к увеличению затрат живого труда и необходимых для этого средств производства.

Рост затрат труда, особенно живого, становится часто необходимым при повышении качества продукции, получении новых потребительных стоимостей; более полное, интенсивное удовлетворение меняющихся общественных потребностей требует тем самым растущих затрат.

Каждый шаг в повышении производительности живого труда, его экономии означает увеличение затрат прошлого труда, овеществленного в средствах производства; причем повышение образовательноквалификационного уровня, усложнение труда делают более сложным и сам процесс замещения, вызывают при прочих равных условиях дополнительные издержки прошлого труда.

Совершенствование средств производства снижает затраты прошлого труда на единицу полезного эффекта, но вызывает встречное увеличение затрат в тех сферах и отраслях труда, где возникают новые научные идеи, проектируется и создается новая техника.

Наконец, ускорение процесса воспроизводства, предполагающее сокращение различных воспроизводственных циклов, не только требует дополнительных затрат на их структурную перестройку, но и вызывает потери труда, овеществленные в морально устаревших знаниях и в средствах производства.

Таким образом, факторы, обеспечивающие интенсификацию производства, и факторы, противодействующие ей, взаимообусловлены; всякая существенная экономия общественного труда достигается на базе его дополнительных затрат. Поэтому экстенсивный рост и интенсивный рост не только противостоят, но и дополняют друг друга.

 

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