Маральное старение

Появление новых знаний ведет к «моральному старению» имеющихся, что вызывает необходимость систематического переобучения. Если, например, объем научно-технической информации примерно удваивается каждые 10 лет [ПО, с. 340], то это значит, что при 30летнем периоде трудовой деятельности каждый человек должен получить 2—3 объема своих первоначальных знаний; затраты на «реконструкцию» и обновление знаний должны составлять тем самым большую часть общих затрат на образование.

Сам процесс обучения и усвоения является конкретным, полезным видом труда. Его полезность, создаваемая им «потребительная стоимость» состоят в передаче научных знаний обучающего обучающемуся, учителя — ученику. Своеобразие этого вида труда в том, что он возможен только как совместный труд учителя и ученика, т. е. он является одновременно и общественным, и личным трудом. Более того, просто «передавать» знания нельзя, их можно усваивать только в результате их активного воспроизведения. Поэтому понятия и стоимости, и потребительной стоимости в прямом смысле к этой сфере труда неприменимы— и не потому, что здесь нет общественно необходимых затрат труда и их конкретного, полезного результата, а потому, что такой труд носит одновременно и общественный, и индивидуальный характер. Можно говорить о стоимости и потребительной стоимости научных знаний лишь по отношению к общественной, специализированной части этой сферы труда, понимая ее неотделимость от индивидуальных затрат труда и времени. Гигантское расширение масштабов научных знаний, которые должны непрерывно воспроизводиться и обновляться, делает объективно необходимым обобществление этого процесса, все больший перевод его на специализированную основу. Это не значит, что индивидуальный труд учащегося может быть чем-либо заменен; тем более это невозможно в сфере переобучения, которое по природе своей должно быть непрерывным и лично глубоко осознанным. Однако совершенствование процесса воспроизводства научных знаний не может не охватить и сферу индивидуального труда, происходящего в так называемое свободное время; возникает необходимость лучшей материальной обеспеченности этого труда, что не может не влиять и на затраты по воспроизводству самой рабочей силы, на потребности человека. По этой причине, например, масштабы производства и доступность книг и других источников информации превратились в одно из решающих условий всего научно-технического прогресса.

Сохранение научных знаний обеспечивается как самим процессом труда, все время их возобновляющим, так и сохранением самой человеческой личности, происходящим под воздействием господствующих социальных условий, специализированного труда по охране здоровья, а также в результате собственных усилий каждого человека. Если бы увеличение объема и повышение уровня научных знаний не сопровождались увеличением продолжительности жизни человека, в особенности периода его трудоспособности, то эффективность затрат на обучение была бы чрезвычайно низкой; более того, само научное совершенствование рабочей силы могло бы оказаться невозможным, так как не было бы времени для обучения, а затраты на обучение не давали бы отдачи и тем самым не могли бы воспроизводиться.

 

54 Comments

  1. I simply want to mention I’m all new to blogs and definitely loved this web page. Likely I’m likely to bookmark your blog post . You actually come with incredible writings. Thanks a bunch for sharing with us your blog site.

  2. Hello very nice site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also匢’m satisfied to find so many useful info here within the put up, we’d like work out extra strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.

  3. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the internet the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about worries that they plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  4. great put up, very informative. I’m wondering why the other experts of this sector don’t realize this. You must continue your writing. I am confident, you have a huge readers’ base already!

  5. I really appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thank you again!

  6. I will right away take hold of your rss feed as I can not in finding your email subscription link or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me recognize so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  7. I like this weblog very much, Its a rattling nice spot to read and receive information. «From now on, ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put.» by Sir Winston Churchill.

  8. Excellent beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  9. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is wonderful, let alone the content!

  10. I simply couldn’t leave your website before suggesting that I extremely loved the standard info a person provide for your guests? Is going to be again regularly in order to inspect new posts

  11. Loopylove results on all of the lists of favorite web pages as actually. The people at Loopylove assume that on-line dating will requires to be fun and Loopylove enables dwell chat, videos, instant messenger, emails, winks, and much more. You can also get an app for your smartphone. LoopyLove has step 1.6 million members in the Uk and expenditures 22.99 lbs a month but you may possibly a several day trial for two.99 lbs. It is sixty male and 40 female.#1 ANASTANIA-INTERNATIONAL Anastasia-International is the world’s largest International Introduction and Romance Tour Boss. It’s been in business since 1993.Now start establishing links to site by visiting other blogger sites. Read their posts and make some comments are usually relevant while adding dollars address. Just give other visitors a connection to could and a path for to be able to visit. Do this to create as many links back to your blog as identify.An Xbox Live Gold 12 month membership subscription gives you many privileges the Silver doesn’t. This includes free access to Netflix’s move and tv series library for anyone already part of Netflix. Additionally, you will be that can access multiplayer games, have game parties, access special features in the marketplace and more.The sexcam that becomes uploaded online every second is intended to enlighten you, on your sex. This has just presented an excellent opportunity due to spouses who wishes to have issue life experience of how sweet sex the. There are super-hot ladies throughout their spine tingling body. Women are upwards of able to offer you that feeling that you have never had. The one thing that you are doing is have a few of the precious minutes and catch a peek at exactly what behind the scene. May well just drive you insanely.No appear your age, height, weight or physical appearance, niche markets . thousands of women out there eager to meet you and also for organization.whether short-term or long-term relationships are anyone want. Products and solutions have found yourself suddenly «on-the-market» again after rapport has dissolved or basically are too busy with function to spend a involving time trying to find a lady to a person company, online dating can open the door to the dating scene for you’ll.Technologies have brought all of the new good things to us perfect on the actual. We’re now fully soaked to your new found glory of technology. Ought to need anymore time and energy to wander and rack the rear of must re-balance to the connection that does not seem to spend time visiting far. Follow on the icon download, along making use of smart phones will permit easy download of the online sex webcam. And how enough time will that take? Just seconds away . fraction in the second there you keep your watch live sex.Affiliate marketing is quite hard and it isn’t a get-rich-quick scheme. Address it just while would a usual job. You will have to put in time, and even lots of the usb ports before your family will enjoy a dollar. To most of you, your first sale may not come immediate. It didn’t for me.You’ll have the ability to ask to get a buddies to come and sign up to you in a technique part. You’re able to have a romantic cam chat or share your views or just have some nice. There’s grownup free chat rooms and Grownup Webcams rooms also. An individual open up among the chat rooms, you can easily meet somebody within another conclusion ready to do great friends along with you. You do not would like to be reluctant you just information are going to be leaked around. You can actually simply sign-up by subscribing by through an username and password.This just proves for how easily and quickly the process can be practiced. There are other advanced ways to try to to this, but this is able to offer a place to grow from.

  12. Thanks for every other informative blog. Where else could I get that type of info written in such an ideal way? I’ve a mission that I am just now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such information.

  13. Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossips and internet and this is actually annoying. A good website with exciting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this website, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

  14. I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one today..

  15. Very helpful post boyfriend, thanks for the facts BLOGURL. NAME

  16. You have mentioned very interesting points! ps nice internet site.

  17. I really appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thx again!

  18. I do consider all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They’re very convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very quick for novices. May just you please lengthen them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  19. Great blog here! Also your site loads up fast! What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  20. I’m not sure where you are getting your information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  21. I do consider all the ideas you’ve offered for your post. They are really convincing and will certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are very short for newbies. May just you please lengthen them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

  22. There is perceptibly a bundle to realize about this. I assume you made various good points in features also.

  23. I definitely wanted to develop a small comment to be able to appreciate you for some of the awesome guidelines you are giving out on this site. My time-consuming internet look up has now been compensated with useful suggestions to write about with my close friends. I would mention that many of us readers are unquestionably blessed to live in a remarkable website with many brilliant professionals with good basics. I feel truly happy to have encountered your entire site and look forward to tons of more thrilling times reading here. Thank you again for a lot of things.

  24. Great – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with your site. I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs as well as related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it at all. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, web site theme . a tones way for your client to communicate. Nice task.

  25. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  26. Greetings from Los angeles! I’m bored at work so I decided to check out your site on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, good site!

  27. Unquestionably believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked while people consider worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  28. Very well written information. It will be useful to anyone who utilizes it, as well as myself. Keep doing what you are doing – i will definitely read more posts.

  29. Great web site. Lots of helpful information here. I’m sending it to some friends ans also sharing in delicious. And naturally, thanks in your sweat!

  30. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  31. Hello, you used to write fantastic, but the last few posts have been kinda boring¡K I miss your tremendous writings. Past several posts are just a little bit out of track! come on!

  32. Just desire to say your article is as amazing. The clarity in your post is simply excellent and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

  33. I like this post, enjoyed this one thanks for putting up.

  34. Utterly indited written content, Really enjoyed looking through.

  35. I just need to reveal to you that I am new to writing and really cherished your work. Likely I am likely to save your blog post . You undoubtedly have great article content. Truly Appreciate it for discussing with us your own blog document

  36. Hiya here, just got alert to your wordpress bog through Bing and yahoo, and discovered that it’s really informative. I’ll value should you keep up this idea.

  37. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  38. You have mentioned very interesting details ! ps decent website . «In music the passions enjoy themselves.» by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche.

  39. Hello, you used to write fantastic, but the last several posts have been kinda boring¡K I miss your super writings. Past few posts are just a little bit out of track! come on!

  40. I’m very happy to find this web site. I need to to thank you for ones time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it and i also have you book-marked to look at new things in your web site.

  41. My wife and i have been really peaceful Michael could deal with his studies by way of the ideas he was given while using the blog. It is now and again perplexing just to be releasing ideas which usually others have been making money from. We really acknowledge we’ve got the website owner to appreciate because of that. The most important explanations you’ve made, the straightforward web site navigation, the friendships you can help to instill – it’s most superb, and it is facilitating our son in addition to our family imagine that this subject is exciting, and that’s pretty important. Many thanks for the whole thing!

  42. I do consider all of the concepts you have presented in your post. They are very convincing and will definitely work. Still, the posts are very quick for novices. Could you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  43. MichaelJemery.com is a site with many hypnosis downloads. Whether you are looking for free hypnosis downloads, self hypnosis download for mp3, video and any audio files, Michael Jemery has the downloads for you. You can download hypnosis from apps, audio, mp3 and even youtube !

  44. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  45. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be really something that I think I would never understand. It seems too complex and very broad for me. I am looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  46. I’m still learning from you, but I’m trying to reach my goals. I definitely liked reading all that is posted on your site.Keep the posts coming. I liked it!

  47. Lovely blog! I am loving it!! Will come back again. I am bookmarking your feeds also

  48. I do trust all of the ideas you’ve introduced for your post. They’re really convincing and can certainly work. Still, the posts are too brief for novices. May just you please extend them a bit from next time? Thank you for the post.

  49. I like the efforts you have put in this, appreciate it for all the great blog posts.

  50. Keep up the good work , I read few posts on this website and I think that your web blog is very interesting and has got lots of fantastic information.

  51. Emeryeps is a SEO(Search Engine optimzation) and Internet Marketing company. They help businesses to get traffic from various search engine and online community. They have seo experts and consultants with many years of SEO Experiences. No matter where your business is located, EmeryEPS.com can help your business to secure your highly convertible leads online.

  52. I not to mention my pals were viewing the best secrets and techniques on your site and so all of a sudden I got a horrible suspicion I never thanked you for those secrets. My men were definitely absolutely excited to read them and have very much been enjoying them. Appreciate your genuinely considerably kind as well as for obtaining this kind of really good topics millions of individuals are really wanting to be aware of. My very own sincere apologies for not expressing appreciation to sooner.

  53. Great website. Lots of useful information here. I’m sending it to several friends ans also sharing in delicious. And certainly, thank you for your effort!

  54. Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was looking for! «If you could choose one characteristic that would get you through life, choose a sense of humor.» by Jennifer Jones.

Оставить коментарий