Машины, орудия труда

Машины, орудия труда образуют определенные технологические процессы, т. е. способы превращения исходного предмета труда в готовую продукцию, а их система — общественную технологию. В ней с наибольшей полнотой воплощается достигнутый уровень развития науки и техники и вместе с тем отражаются цели развития и господствующие общественные условия. Именно к технологии производства относится известное замечание К. Маркса, что экономические эпохи различаются не тем, что производится, а тем, как производится, какими средствами труда [1, т. 23, с. 191]. От технологии в решающей мере зависит соотношение между затратами и результатами, в ней, как уже отмечалось, взаимодействие производительных сил и производственных отношений получает свое конкретное, материальное выражение . По этой причине развитие машин, технологии занимает центральное место во всем процессе совершенствования производительных сил.

Машины возникли и в основном продолжают существовать как механические способы превращения энергии в полезную работу : прядение, ткачество, подъем воды, перемещение земли, обработка дерева и металла, транспортировка грузов и людей, выделка бумаги, книгопечатание и т. д. Все эти работы выполнялись ранее вручную; им соответствовало большое число ручных орудий труда, достигших наибольшей дифференциации в период раннего капитализма, господства мануфактурного производства. Первые поколения машин были, как это уже отмечалось, простым применением ручных орудий труда или их сочетания; они были в основном однооперационными (мельница) и создавались там, где уже произошло выделение простейших операций,— помол, ткачество, прядение, обработка металла и т. п. Но уже это означало качественный, революционный сдвиг. «Промышленная революция,— писал К. Маркс в одном из писем Ф. Энгельсу,— начинается тогда, когда механизм применяется там, где издавна для получения конечного результата требовалась работа человека.» [1, т. 30, с. 264].

 

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