Материализация научных знаний в человеке

Материализация научных знаний в человеке, его рабочей силе взаимосвязана с их материализацией в средствах производства.

В СССР в настоящее время в сферах образования и здравоохранения занято примерно 12 % рабочей силы (около 60 % в промышленности, строительстве, сельском хозяйстве), а в США — соответственно 15 и 30% [69, 1983, с. 254, 364, 365].

Поскольку, как уже отмечалось, средства производства обеспечивают, в общем смысле, взаимодействие между человеком и природой, то они, становясь продолжением естественных сил труда, неизмеримо усиливают, умножают их. Это происходит одновременно с развитием самого человека, совершенствованием свойств его рабочей силы. Оба эти процесса не только происходят одновременно, но и взаимно обусловливают друг друга. Однако рабочая сила и средства производства поразному влияют на процесс воспроизводства годового общественного продукта как стоимости и потребительной стоимости, могут находиться между собой в разных сочетаниях.

Чем в большей мере научные знания материализуются непосредственно в человеке, в его образовательноквалификационном уровне, тем быстрее растет вновь созданная стоимость, выше производительность труда на единицу времени, разнообразнее потребительные стоимости и выше их качество. Сдвиг материализации научных знаний в пользу средств производства, их технического уровня ведет к ускорению роста перенесенной стоимости и замедлению роста вновь созданной, к возможности более быстрого снижения стоимости продукции по сравнению с экономией рабочего времени, к меньшей дифференциации ассортиментных и качественных характеристик продукции. Соответственно в первом случае выше доля общественного труда, непосредственно связанного с воспроизводством человека и его рабочей силы, во втором — с воспроизводством средств производства. Различия в пространственной и временной мобильности человека и средств производства влияют на оборот научных знаний — скорость их распространения в пространстве и развития во времени. Естественно, что человек больше приспособлен к «технической реконструкции», он может непрерывно обновлять свои знания, тогда как в средствах производства научные знания фиксируются на более или менее продолжительный период; в этом аспекте увеличение «вложений» в человека и их доли ускоряет общее развитие производительных сил. В пространственном аспекте практически безграничная мобильность научной информации наталкивается на неизмеримо меньшую мобильность производства средств производства, частично преодолеваемую импортом, и на относительную территориальную стабильность рабочей силы. В этих условиях материализация научных знаний в человеке, сопровождаемая повышением его физической мобильности, что также требует повышения доли так называемых непроизводственных затрат, играет ключевую роль в развитии научно-технического прогресса вширь.

Несопряженность материализации научных знаний в рабочей силе и в средствах производства поразному влияет на процесс воспроизводства в зависимости от того, какая из форм имеет «избыток». Если образовательноквалификационный уровень рабочей силы не соответствует («ниже») техническому уровню средств производства, то возможности последних недоиспользуются, уменьшается объем и снижается качество производимой продукции (по сравнению с техническими возможностями производства), увеличивается размер перенесенной стоимости и повышаются затраты предметов труда на единицу производимой продукции.

 

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