Научно-техническая основа в решении проблем

Здесь нет необходимости подробно анализировать историю возникновения производственных проблем и их решения на научно-технической основе; этому посвящены многочисленные труды по истории первой промышленной революции. Остановимся лишь на взаимосвязи развития машин, металлургии и энергетики в этот период, с тем чтобы выявить логику перехода техники на научную основу.

Непосредственной целью производства первых текстильных машин (сначала прядильных, а потом ткацких) было удовлетворение растущего внутреннего спроса. На основе ручной техники это было невозможно, а машинная техника вызвала гигантский скачок производства. Ручное производство сукна и хлопчатобумажных тканей увеличивалось в Англии до начала 80х годов

XVIII в. примерно на 2% в год, а с 1781 по 1802 г. производство хлопчатобумажных тканей росло на 25 % в год, их экспорт увеличился в 22 раза В первых машинах все, кроме пружин, было деревянным. Такой была, например, прядильная машина Р. Аркрайта, что является еще одним свидетельством ремесленного, эмпирического происхождения первых машин, нисколько не соответствовавших требованиям научной механики. Все это, естественно, противоречило тем длительным механическим нагрузкам, которые они должны были выдерживать. Энергетические возможности человека уже не соответствовали требованиям этих машин, а естественные источники энергии (в основном водяные мельницы) были ограничены и строго локализованы; так, двигательной силой машины Р. Аркрайта была вода, что очевидно из самого ее названия waterframe («водяной станок»). Последнее обстоятельство входило также в противоречие с требованием капиталистического производства — с подчинением труда капиталу — из-за «размазанности» такого машинного производства по территории.

 

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