Новые научные знания

Новые научные знания материализуются прежде всего в более высоком уровне образования и квалификации рабочей силы, в понимании человеком природы используемых им в процессе труда естественных и общественных сил. Это усложняет труд и, как уже было отмечено, увеличивает стоимость, вновь созданную в единицу времени, а также повышает производительность труда. Даже при неизменных условиях производства повышение образовательно-квалификационного уровня может быть источником экономического роста, так как способствует более полному использованию всех возможностей данных производительных сил, научных знаний, материализованных в их вещественных элементах.

Между материализацией научных знаний в рабочей силе, точнее в ее качестве, в сложности труда, и самой наукой лежит труд, специализированный и неспециализированный, по их передаче, усвоению и сохранению. Процесс обучения и усвоения научных знаний является результатом специализированного труда в сфере образования и труда самих учащихся; при этом развитие научных знаний требует систематического переобучения, т. е. обновления ранее полученных знаний.

Труд общественный и индивидуальный, обеспечивающий материализацию научных знаний непосредственно в рабочей силе и ведущий к усложнению живого труда, подчинен общим закономерностям совершенствования процесса труда. Его общественно необходимые масштабы определяются общественными потребностями в распространении и обновлении научных знаний. Эти затраты в расчете на «единицу» знаний неизмеримо ниже затрат на их производство в сфере науки; стоимость носпроизводства «единицы» научных знаний несопоставимо меньше стоимости ее производства, поскольку, как заметил К. Маркс, «теорему о биноме школьник может выучить в течение одного часа» . Такой разрыв в стоимости производства и воспроизводства научных знаний объясняется их природой, несоизмеримостью сложности собственно научного труда и сложности усвоения уже известных и многократно доказанных научных истин.

Вместе с тем общий объем затрат на воспроизводство научных знаний может быть больше затрат на их производство, поскольку в первом случае речь идет о тиражировании, массовом распространении, а во втором — о «единичном» производстве; тот же бином Ньютона должен быть доведен до десятков, сотен миллионов каждого поколения учащихся. Уровень общественно необходимых затрат на воспроизводство одного и того же объема знаний может непрерывно снижаться за счет совершенствования процесса обучения, создания эффективных методов передачи и усвоения знаний (учебников, технических средств, более активных форм обучения и т. п.); огромная роль принадлежит здесь педагогической науке и психологии, потому что главное в процессе обучения — это сами способности и мотивы поведения учащихся, их понимание и развитие.



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