Общественная потребность в научных знаниях

Общественная потребность в научных знаниях определяется закономерностью повышения производительности труда, объективной необходимостью непрерывного преодоления ограниченности естественных производительных сил, а также структурной, временной и пространственной ограниченности общественных производительных сил. Расширение и углубление научного познания ставит на службу человечеству объективные законы естественного и общественного развития, раздвигает границы совершенствования производительных сил труда. В результате происходит увеличение производства потребительных стоимостей без соответствующего увеличения затрат труда, снижается стоимость единицы продукции. Опережающий рост массы потребительных стоимостей по отношению к их стоимости означает экономию труда, уменьшение его затрат, общественно необходимых для производства той же продукции.

Экономия труда происходит под воздействием ряда факторов, которые называл К. Маркс,— средней степени искусства рабочих, общественного разделения труда, природных условий. После первой промышленной революции главным источником повышения производительности труда становится наука и техника.

В эпоху, когда технический прогресс происходит на научной основе, научные знания превращаются в источник экономии общественного труда, поэтому в той мере, в какой развивается наука и ее достижения сливаются со всем общественным трудом, происходит уменьшение его затрат.

Зависимость экономии труда от затрат труда в сфере науки обусловливает объективные основы формирования общественно необходимых затрат самого научного труда; чем сильнее действует закономерность экономии труда, тем большая часть общественного труда должна быть направлена в сферу науки. Тем самым общественная потребность в экономии труда порождает затраты труда, обеспечивающие эту экономию. В этом же направлении действуют развитие и усложнение общественных потребностей.

Здесь возникают естественные вопросы о том, чем определяются сама закономерность экономии труда и интенсивность ее действия и в какой мере разнообразные результаты научного познания могут быть сведены к экономии труда. Ответ на эти вопросы содержится, на наш взгляд, в анализе общеисторических закономерностей развития производительных сил. Не повторяя этого анализа, отметим главное: закономерность повышения производительности труда (экономии труда) вытекает из самой природы целесообразного человеческого труда, развития и умножения естественных сил труда. В докапиталистических формациях из-за принудительного характера труда эта закономерность была слабо выражена, неустойчива. Переход к капитализму превратил труд в источник прибавочной стоимости, а рабочую силу в элемент издержек производства; в этих условиях экономия труда стала одним из главных факторов увеличения относительной прибавочной стоимости, прибыли и ведущим хозяйственным мотивом совершенствования производства. Социализм ликвидировал противоречивые формы действия этой закономерности и превратил экономию труда в непосредственную цель и главный признак совершенствования производительных сил.

 

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