Общественно необходимый научный труд

Стоимость научных знаний, так же как и других продуктов труда, определяется затратами общественно необходимого абстрактного труда.

Как неоднократно подчеркивал К. Маркс, общественно необходимые затраты труда недостаточно рассматривать лишь как средние затраты простого труда при нормальных условиях производства; на самом деле это общественные отношения, выходящие за пределы отдельной отрасли, формирующиеся за спиной производителей и несводимые к простой количественной определенности. В отношении научного труда действует еще один объективный момент, усложняющий процесс образования в этой сфере общественно необходимых затрат,— всеобщий характер научного труда.

Вспомним, что К. Маркс определял как общественно необходимые те затраты труда, которые соответствуют общественной потребности в данном виде продукции, т. е. потребительной стоимости в общественном масштабе . Иными словами, потребительная стоимость — не только условие самого существования стоимости, но и фактор формирования ее количественного выражения. Общественно необходимые затраты научного труда определяются, следовательно, общественными потребностями в научных знаниях. Подойти к определению этого понятия с позиций совокупности индивидуальных затрат труда в сфере науки невозможно ни теоретически, ни практически. Невозможно прежде всего в силу самой природы общественно необходимых затрат, о чем уже говорилось. Кроме того, с точки зрения результативности научный труд обладает значительной неопределенностью, поскольку научное познание всегда происходит на границе неизвестного, сопровождается возникновением тупиковых идей и направлений, резких скачков в одних областях знаний и стагнации в других. Длительный путь от научных идей до их использования изобилует случайностями, ведет к высокой «смертности» исходных научных идей. Фактор неопределенности не позволяет рассматривать общественно необходимый научный труд с точки зрения его «нормальных» затрат на научную продукцию. Продуктивные и доходящие до конечного результата научные идеи могут существовать только вместе с тупиковыми и даже ошибочными, и все они необходимы для развития науки.



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