Общественно необходимый научный труд

Стоимость научных знаний, так же как и других продуктов труда, определяется затратами общественно необходимого абстрактного труда.

Как неоднократно подчеркивал К. Маркс, общественно необходимые затраты труда недостаточно рассматривать лишь как средние затраты простого труда при нормальных условиях производства; на самом деле это общественные отношения, выходящие за пределы отдельной отрасли, формирующиеся за спиной производителей и несводимые к простой количественной определенности. В отношении научного труда действует еще один объективный момент, усложняющий процесс образования в этой сфере общественно необходимых затрат,— всеобщий характер научного труда.

Вспомним, что К. Маркс определял как общественно необходимые те затраты труда, которые соответствуют общественной потребности в данном виде продукции, т. е. потребительной стоимости в общественном масштабе . Иными словами, потребительная стоимость — не только условие самого существования стоимости, но и фактор формирования ее количественного выражения. Общественно необходимые затраты научного труда определяются, следовательно, общественными потребностями в научных знаниях. Подойти к определению этого понятия с позиций совокупности индивидуальных затрат труда в сфере науки невозможно ни теоретически, ни практически. Невозможно прежде всего в силу самой природы общественно необходимых затрат, о чем уже говорилось. Кроме того, с точки зрения результативности научный труд обладает значительной неопределенностью, поскольку научное познание всегда происходит на границе неизвестного, сопровождается возникновением тупиковых идей и направлений, резких скачков в одних областях знаний и стагнации в других. Длительный путь от научных идей до их использования изобилует случайностями, ведет к высокой «смертности» исходных научных идей. Фактор неопределенности не позволяет рассматривать общественно необходимый научный труд с точки зрения его «нормальных» затрат на научную продукцию. Продуктивные и доходящие до конечного результата научные идеи могут существовать только вместе с тупиковыми и даже ошибочными, и все они необходимы для развития науки.

 

84 Comments

  1. Hello mates, its great piece of writing about teachingand entirely
    defined, keep it up all the time.

  2. Hey! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new project in a community
    in the same niche. Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a
    marvellous job!

  3. Yes! Finally something about find truly unisex.

  4. Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger, and
    I was wanting to know your situation; many of us have developed some nice
    procedures and we are looking to swap methods with
    others, be sure to shoot me an e-mail if interested.

  5. When someone writes an piece of writing he/she keeps the plan of a user in his/her mind that how
    a user can understand it. So that’s why this post is amazing.

    Thanks!

  6. Thanks , I’ve recently been searching for info about this topic for a long time and
    yours is the greatest I’ve discovered so far. However,
    what about the bottom line? Are you sure in regards to the source?

  7. A person essentially lend a hand to make critically articles I might state.
    This is the very first time I frequented your web page and thus
    far? I amazed with the analysis you made to create
    this actual put up extraordinary. Wonderful task!

  8. Hey very interesting blog!

  9. Good way of describing, and fastidious piece of
    writing to get facts about my presentation topic, which i
    am going to convey in institution of higher education.

  10. Really when someone doesn’t understand then its up to other users that they will help,
    so here it occurs.

  11. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be
    actually something that I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post,
    I will try to get the hang of it!

  12. Today, I went to the beach front with my children. I found a sea
    shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.»
    She placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear.
    She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic
    but I had to tell someone!

  13. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up!

    I’ll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later.

    All the best

  14. Greetings! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using
    for this website? I’m getting tired of WordPress
    because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform.
    I would be great if you could point me in the direction of
    a good platform.

  15. It’s fantastic that you are getting ideas from this post as well
    as from our dialogue made here.

  16. You made some good points there. I looked on the web for
    more information about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this
    site.

  17. Have you ever considered about adding a little
    bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is
    valuable and all. However just imagine if you added some great images or
    videos to give your posts more, «pop»! Your content is excellent but with images and video
    clips, this blog could certainly be one of the greatest in its field.
    Fantastic blog!

  18. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this, like you
    wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message
    home a bit, but other than that, this is excellent
    blog. A fantastic read. I’ll certainly be back.

  19. Neat blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?
    A design like yours with a few simple adjustements
    would really make my blog shine. Please let me know where you got your theme.
    Thank you

  20. I am no longer certain where you’re getting your info, but great topic.
    I needs to spend a while learning much more or working out more.
    Thanks for great info I used to be looking for this information for my mission.

  21. Sweet blog! I found it while browsing on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get
    listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while
    but I never seem to get there! Thanks

  22. Yong:

    Excellent goods from you, man. I’ve be aware your stuff previous to
    and you are just extremely wonderful. I really like what you have received right here,
    certainly like what you are saying and the best way in which you
    say it. You are making it enjoyable and you continue to take
    care of to keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read far more from you.
    That is really a tremendous site.

  23. Hi, everything is going fine here and ofcourse
    every one is sharing facts, that’s really excellent, keep
    up writing.

  24. My family members all the time say that I am wasting my
    time here at net, except I know I am getting know-how every day by reading thes pleasant articles.

  25. First off I would like to say awesome blog! I had a quick question that I’d like to ask if you
    do not mind. I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your thoughts before writing.
    I have had trouble clearing my mind in getting my ideas out.
    I truly do enjoy writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are lost simply just trying to
    figure out how to begin. Any recommendations or
    tips? Kudos!

  26. Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account
    it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the way,
    how could we communicate?

  27. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to
    be actually something that I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I am looking forward for your next
    post, I will try to get the hang of it!

  28. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it’s
    time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest
    you some interesting things or suggestions. Perhaps you
    could write next articles referring to this article.
    I want to read even more things about it!

  29. What’s up, all is going well here and ofcourse every one is sharing information, that’s in fact excellent, keep
    up writing.

  30. It’s not my first time to visit this site, i am visiting this
    site dailly and take fastidious data from here everyday.

  31. Hi there, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you
    get a lot of spam remarks? If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or
    anything you can advise? I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any help is very
    much appreciated.

  32. Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established
    blog. Is it difficult to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty
    fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where
    to start. Do you have any ideas or suggestions? Appreciate it

  33. Jan:

    If you are going for finest contents like I do, just go to
    see this website every day for the reason that it provides feature contents, thanks

  34. Hi, its nice post concerning media print, we all be familiar with media is a enormous source of data.

  35. Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I wish
    to say that this write-up very forced me to check out and do
    so! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thank you, quite nice post.

  36. Your style is really unique in comparison to other folks
    I have read stuff from. Thank you for posting when you have
    the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark this web site.

  37. Swen:

    Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet
    the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while people consider worries that they just don’t know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the
    whole thing without having side effect , people can take a
    signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  38. Appreciating the persistence you put into your site and in depth
    information you provide. It’s great to come across a blog every once
    in a while that isn’t the same out of date rehashed information. Excellent
    read! I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  39. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future
    and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I
    could I desire to suggest you few interesting
    things or tips. Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article.

    I wish to read more things about it!

  40. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I’ve really loved surfing around
    your blog posts. After all I’ll be subscribing on your rss feed and
    I hope you write again soon!

  41. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but, I’d like
    to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some creative ideas for your blog
    you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it develop over time.

  42. Greetings! Quick question that’s totally off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?
    My website looks weird when viewing from my iphone4.

    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might
    be able to correct this problem. If you have any recommendations, please share.
    Cheers!

  43. After looking at a number of the blog posts on your blog,
    I honestly like your technique of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website list and
    will be checking back in the near future. Take a look at my
    web site as well and tell me what you think.

  44. Hmm is anyone else experiencing problems with the pictures on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.
    Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

  45. This is very attention-grabbing, You are an overly professional blogger.
    I’ve joined your rss feed and stay up for looking
    for more of your excellent post. Also, I’ve shared your web site in my
    social networks

  46. Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it.
    Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! However, how
    can we communicate?

  47. Does your site have a contact page? I’m having a tough
    time locating it but, I’d like to send you an e-mail.
    I’ve got some suggestions for your blog you might be interested in hearing.

    Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it develop over time.

  48. Hi! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to look it over.

    I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and
    will be tweeting this to my followers! Exceptional blog and
    fantastic design and style.

  49. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.
    I do not know who you are but certainly you’re going to a famous
    blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!

  50. Hello there, I believe your site may be having internet browser compatibility
    problems. Whenever I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in I.E.,
    it’s got some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to
    give you a quick heads up! Besides that,
    excellent website!

  51. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I definitely enjoyed
    reading it, you may be a great author. I will be sure to bookmark your
    blog and will often come back in the foreseeable future.
    I want to encourage continue your great work, have a nice afternoon!

  52. Aw, this was a very good post. Taking a few minutes and actual effort to
    create a top notch article… but what can I say… I hesitate a lot and never
    manage to get nearly anything done.

  53. An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I do think that you ought to write more on this subject, it may
    not be a taboo subject but usually folks don’t talk about such issues.
    To the next! All the best!!

  54. Hi there, I enjoy reading all of your article post. I wanted to write a little comment to support
    you.

  55. Hello there, just became alert to your blog through
    Google, and found that it’s really informative. I’m gonna watch out for
    brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future.
    Lots of people will be benefited from your writing.

    Cheers!

  56. That is a good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere.
    Short but very precise information… Appreciate your sharing this
    one. A must read post!

  57. My family all the time say that I am killing my time here at
    net, but I know I am getting knowledge everyday by reading thes fastidious content.

  58. Great blog here! Additionally your site a lot up very fast!

    What web host are you the usage of? Can I get your associate link to your host?

    I wish my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  59. I simply want to tell you that I’m new to weblog and certainly liked you’re blog site. Very likely I’m want to bookmark your website . You certainly have remarkable writings. Many thanks for sharing with us your website.

  60. Excellent weblog here! Additionally your site rather a lot up very fast!
    What host are you the use of? Can I get your associate link to your host?
    I desire my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  61. You’re so cool! I do not suppose I’ve truly read through anything like that before.
    So nice to discover somebody with genuine thoughts on this
    subject. Really.. many thanks for starting this up.
    This web site is one thing that is required on the web,
    someone with some originality!

  62. When someone writes an post he/she keeps the thought of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it.
    Thus that’s why this piece of writing is outstdanding.

    Thanks!

  63. Hurrah, that’s what I was searching for, what a information! present here at this
    weblog, thanks admin of this site.

  64. I’m not sure where you are getting your
    information, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.

    Thanks for fantastic info I was looking for this information for
    my mission.

  65. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you aided me.

  66. Hi there to all, the contents present at this web page are truly awesome for
    people experience, well, keep up the nice work fellows.

  67. If you are going for best contents like I do,
    simply go to see this website everyday as it offers feature contents, thanks

  68. Hello there, simply turned into conscious of BLOGURL thru Search engines, and found that really it is informative. I? m gonna watch out there for brussels. I will appreciate in case you continue this in foreseeable future. A lot of folks will be benefited from your writing. Cheers! NAME

  69. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I’m not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my problem. You’re wonderful! Thanks!

  70. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They are very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are very short for starters. Could you please extend them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

  71. You can definitely see your skills in the work you write.

    The arena hopes for even more passionate writers like you who
    aren’t afraid to mention how they believe. At all times
    follow your heart.

  72. Hi there very cool site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing ..
    I will bookmark your website and take the feeds also? I am glad to
    find numerous helpful information right here in the post, we need work out more strategies on this regard,
    thank you for sharing. . . . . .

  73. I really like what you guys tend to be up too. This type
    of clever work and exposure! Keep up the superb works guys I’ve included
    you guys to blogroll.

  74. Great post. I was checking continuously this blog and
    I’m inspired! Extremely helpful info specially the ultimate
    phase :) I take care of such info a lot. I used to be looking for this certain info for
    a long time. Thank you and good luck.

  75. whoah this blog is excellent i like studying your articles.
    Keep up the good work! You recognize, many persons are searching around for this information, you could help them greatly.

  76. Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article.
    I will make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information.
    Thanks for the post. I will definitely return.

  77. This is my first time visit at here and i am in fact happy
    to read everthing at alone place.

  78. Hey there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my
    facebook group? There’s a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content.
    Please let me know. Many thanks

  79. When I initially commented I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time
    a comment is added I receive four emails with the same
    comment. Perhaps there is an easy method you are able to remove me from that service?
    Thank you!

  80. Admiring the commitment you put into your site and detailed information you
    offer. It’s awesome to come across a blog every once in a while that isn’t
    the same old rehashed information. Excellent read! I’ve saved
    your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  81. I¡¦ve read a few excellent stuff here. Definitely price bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much attempt you set to create this kind of great informative site.

  82. It’s truly a great and useful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this useful information with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  83. I visited many web pages except the audio feature for audio songs existing at this site is truly marvelous.

  84. Wow! This could be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Fantastic. I am also a specialist in this topic so I can understand your hard work.

Оставить коментарий