Общественное разделение труда

Общественное разделение труда, имея часто технологическое происхождение, является по сути своей экономическим, поскольку осуществляется в масштабах общества, опосредствуется отношениями собственности и институциональными формами, реализуется через отношения обмена.

В реальной действительности технология и экономика не отделены друг от друга; господствующие экономические отношения закрепляются в технологии, которая в свою очередь определяет возможности и скорость изменения экономических отношений. Взаимообусловленность технологии и экономики порождает непрерывное преобразование внутрипроизводственного разделения труда в общественное. С одной стороны, отдельные звенья единого технологического процесса становятся самостоятельными элементами общественного разделения труда. С другой стороны, совершенствование технологии производства объединяет в единое целое ранее разобщенные его звенья, сокращает путь от исходной продукции к конечной. В первом случае примером может служить развитие подетальной специализации в машиностроении, во втором — комбинирование производств, особенно при добыче и первичной переработке сырья, создание безотходных и малооперационных технологий.

В условиях научно-технического прогресса, когда технология развивается на научной основе, разделение труда внутри производства постепенно становится планомерным, адекватным технологии производства Тем самым внутрипроизводственное разделение труда приобретает качественно новый, научный характер. Что касается общественного разделения труда, то перевод его на научную основу является процессом более длительным и противоречивым. Для этого необходима, как учит марксизмленинизм, смена общественных форм производства; лишь в условиях социализма перевод .внутрипроизводственного разделения труда на научно-техническую основу дополняется переводом общественного разделения труда на планомерную, общественнонаучную основу [1, т. 20, с. 290—291].



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