Орудия и средства труда

Орудия и средства труда создаются в процессе инвестиционной деятельности. Научные знания приобретают здесь формы конкретных проектов и конструкций, которые воплощаются сначала в промежуточные, а затем в конечные инвестиционные блага, в действующие основные фонды — машины и оборудование, здания и сооружения, инфраструктурные средства труда. К удлинению инвестиционного цикла могут вести как снижение доступности и ухудшение качества естественных производительных сил, их большая пространственная разобщенность, так и отставание технологии и организации инвестиционной деятельности. Поэтому сокращение инвестиционного цикла является одним из главных направлений и проявлений научно-технического прогресса.

Сроки службы орудий и средств труда определяются, как уже отмечалось, сочетанием двух противоречивых факторов — их долговечностью, позволяющей многократно, в течение длительного времени использовать эффект однажды материализованных научных знаний, и темпом обновления последних, в результате чего возникает необходимость замены морально устаревших основных фондов, т. е. сокращения сроков их службы. Компромисс между максимумом экономии труда в данный период времени и ускорением процесса экономии в динамике складывается, о чем говорилось ранее, под воздействием конкретных условий воспроизводства и формирует сроки службы основных фондов — меньшие, чем их физическая долговечность, и большие, чем это диктуется одним лишь обновлением научных знаний.



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