Орудия труда

Научные знания способны не только все более полно сохранять непосредственно данные природой полезные свойства предметов труда, но и умножать, комбинировать их. Не только извлечение из каждого вида предметов труда максимума его полезных свойств, но и рациональное (а иногда — предельное) усиление каждого из этих свойств (скажем, повышение предела текучести черных металлов или чистоты редких металлов), создание новых материалов, замещающих или дополняющих старые,— все это придает труду, вооруженному научными знаниями, не только сохраняющую, но и умножающую силу. Если совершенствование добычи и все более полное использование полезных ископаемых связаны в основном с материализацией научных знаний в орудиях труда, то при совершенствовании предметов труда они материализуются в них самих.

Преобразуясь в орудиях труда, предметы труда «передают» им свою потребительную стоимость. Соотношение между орудиями и предметами труда изменяется под воздействием как меняющихся естественных условий производства, так и распространения научных знаний. Чем быстрее снижается стоимость предметов труда, тем ниже стоимость самих орудий труда и тем выше их способность замещать живой труд, повышать производительность общественного труда. И наоборот, чем медленнее происходит научно-технический прогресс в сфере производства предметов труда, тем больше труда, живого и овеществленного в орудиях труда, должно вовлекаться в эту сферу, тем выше стоимость орудий труда и ниже их способность замещать живой труд.


Свою, особую роль в экономии труда, живого и прошлого, играют средства труда, образующие общие условия производства,— здания, сооружения, объекты производственной инфраструктуры. Функционально здесь различаются две группы средств труда. Первая из них (здания, сооружения и т. п.) обеспечивает внешние условия процесса труда, способствует сохранению всех связанных с ним полезных свойств орудий и предметов труда, а значит, и овеществленного в нем прошлого труда.

Потребительная стоимость зданий, сооружений и других аналогичных средств труда играет в отличие от предметов труда пассивную роль в производстве и использовании орудий труда, их стоимость постепенно целиком переносится на производимую продукцию. Поэтому научно-технический прогресс в сфере проектирования и строительства зданий и сооружений призван решать двоякую задачу: способствовать все более полному сохранению и использованию полезных свойств живого труда, его орудий и предметов, непосредственно участвующих в процессе производства, и одновременно осуществлять эту функцию при минимальных затратах труда.



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