Отсутствие научно-технического прогресса

Отсутствие научно-технического прогресса в сфере производства орудий труда делает постепенно невозможной экономию живого труда, а значит, и ставит пределы его трансформации в прошлый, накопленный труд, которая в таких условиях становится возможной только за счет уменьшения непроизводительного потребления. Иными словами, ускорение научно-технического прогресса увеличивает масштабы общественно необходимого прошлого труда.

Потребительная стоимость орудий труда формируется в определенной мере как производная от полезных свойств предметов труда, естественных или созданных трудом человека. «Природа,— писал К Маркс,— в такой же мере источник потребительных стоимостей (а из никто ведь и состоит вещественное богатство!), как и труд, который сам есть лишь проявление одной из сил природы, человеческой рабочей силы» . С другой стороны, отделяя и перерабатывая вещество природы, человек создает и увеличивает его стоимость. Сохраняющая сила труда  трансформирует потребительную стоимость предметов труда в полезные свойства производимых из них средств, в том числе орудий труда, и одновременно переносит на них стоимость предметов труда. При этом сохраняющая сила труда тем выше, чем целесообразнее сам труд, чем полнее использует он исходные полезные свойства.

От того, насколько производителен и целесообразен труд по добыче и переработке предметов труда, зависят потребительная стоимость и стоимость орудий труда. Действующая в этой сфере труда закономерность снижения доступности и качества непосредственно используемых природных ресурсов может преодолеваться за счет материализации научных знаний в орудиях труда и в самом труде, участвующих в добыче полезных ископаемых. В конечном счете уровень научных знаний и эффективность их материализации выражаются в соотношении физического объема добываемых предметов труда (с учетом их полезных свойств) и затрат труда — живого и прошлого. Чем быстрее совершенствуется процесс добычи, тем успешнее преодолевается ухудшение условий добычи и быстрее растет потребительная стоимость первичных предметов труда по отношению к их стоимости.

В процессе переработки уже отделенных от природы предметов труда научные знания способствуют сохранению их естественных полезных свойств. Максимальная реализация потенциальных механических, физических и иных свойств предметов труда, созданных самой природой, извлечение всех полезных компонентов из каждой единицы добытого сырья, уменьшение отходов становятся все более достижимыми по мере углубления научных знаний. Это повышает сохраняющую силу труда относительно потребительной стоимости предметов труда. Очевидно, что чем ограниченней непосредственно доступные природные ресурсы, сложнее условия их добычи и ниже качество, тем выше нагрузка на научные знания в сфере переработки и использования предметов труда, поскольку тенденция к возрастанию издержек на добычу и первичную переработку может быть нейтрализована только с помощью совершенствования этого процесса на научной основе.

 

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