Перевод на электрическую энергию

Перевод на электрическую энергию силовых, а затем и многих технологических процессов (электрохимия, электрометаллургия, электросварка, нагревательные печи и т. п.) открывал неограниченные возможности использования в промышленности достижений науки. В век пара и господства машин эмпирического происхождения, как уже отмечалось, условия производства не соответствовали требованиям науки: энергия была привязана к месту своего производства, технологическая структура производства еще испытывала влияние эпохи донаучного, ручного труда; паровой двигатель и механическая система передач делали производственные процессы негибкими; строгое соблюдение технологических режимов, точности, прецизионности было затруднено грубостью механических устройств и систем передач . Электрификация промышленности означала переход на использование наиболее качественного энергоносителя, позволяющего создавать технические системы, максимально приближенные к их научным моделям.

Для мобильной техники ту же роль, что электродвигатели для промышленности, сыграли двигатели внутреннего сгорания. На их основе был достигнут такой малый вес единицы мощности, что он позволял одновременно и транспортировать запас топлива, и обеспечивать необходимый полезный вес для рабочей части машин. Возможности увеличения мощности дизелей и бензиновых моторов в сочетании с высокой частотой их работы обеспечили создание скоростного транспорта.

Из всех технических параметров двигателей внутреннего сгорания решающее значение имел физический вес единицы мощности, так как именно от него зависел полезный эффект машин, на которых устанавливался такой двигатель. Именно здесь паровая техника себя исчерпала; повышение единичной мощности парового двигателя вело к росту его удельного веса (на паровых тракторах он составлял 250—300 кг на 1 л. с), а стремление снизить удельный вес — к снижению мощности. При этом если наземный безрельсовый паровой транспорт был технически возможен, но неэффективен, то воздушный — просто невозможен. Лишь преодоление предельного веса единицы мощности в 8,3 кг/л. с. создавало предпосылки для отрыва от земли. На самолете А. Ф. Можайского было установлено сначала два паровых двигателя общей мощностью в 30 л. с. при удельном весе двигательной установки 8 кг/л. с. Это позволило его самолету лишь оторваться от земли. Только изобретение двигателя внутреннего сгорания, поставленного па самолет братьев Райт, открыло эру авиации; уже в 1903 г. был создан бензиновый мотор мощностью 52 л. с. с удельным весом 2,5 кг/л. с, а в 1909 г.— мощностью 80 л. с. с удельным весом 1,5 кг/л. с. [102, с. 270—277].

 

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