Период своего функционирования

В период своего функционирования орудия и средства труда частично совершенствуются в результате замены и модернизации отдельных узлов и деталей, имеющих более короткий срок службы, чем законченные компоненты основных производственных фондов. Однако в отличие от человека этот элемент производительных сил неспособен пока к «самообучению» и качественной перестройке при сохранении неизменной физической формы. В силу этого консерватизм производительных сил, инерция их развития определяются накопленными орудиями и средствами труда. Поскольку экономия труда зависит именно от их совершенствования и от замещения ими живого труда, то скорость их воспроизводства в решающей мере определяют временные границы процессов замещения и экономии. Поэтому если срок службы основных производственных фондов составляет, предположим, 25 лет, то этим определяются и масштабы экономии за счет многократного использования их эффекта, и возможности увеличения этой экономии, ограниченные 4 % (в год) их первоначальной стоимости.

Долговечность орудий и средств труда позволяет накапливать их, т. е. накапливать результаты труда многих лет. На эти цели может быть направлена в каждый период (год) только определенная часть общественного труда, поэтому накопленные средства производства, даже с учетом повышения производительности труда, могут быть воспроизведены лишь на протяжении ряда лет. Это значит, что в каждый данный момент времени существуют две самостоятельные материальные формы общественного труда — рабочая сила и накопленные средства производства, связанные друг с другом отношениями не столько замещения, сколько дополнения. Это значит также, что невоспроизводимость накопленных средств производства в ограниченный интервал времени придает им роль особого фактора процесса производства который не может быть сведен к затратам живого труда.

 

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