Первая промышленная революция

Однако первая промышленная революция остановилась на пороге сельского хозяйства. Здесь развитие рабочих машин натолкнулось на несоответствие им парового двигателя. Хотя были попытки внедрения системы паровой пахоты (на самоходных локомобилях) и в России в 1898 г., и в США, где в 1890 г. были созданы первые гусеничные тракторы с паровыми двигателями, но в целом для мобильной техники, в том числе для безрельсового транспорта, паровая машина оказалась непригодной. Объяснялось это низким к. п. д. использования первичного топлива, что противоречило требованиям к мобильным энергетическим установкам; одним из слагаемых этого низкого к. п. д. был большой удельный вес единицы мощности. В совокупности с отставанием биологии и химии от механики и физики — как в теоретическом, так и в прикладном отношении — это отдалило примерно на 100 лет технический переворот в сельском хозяйстве от начала первой промышленной революции и явилось одной из главных причин общего отставания сельского хозяйства от промышленности. «Земледелие,— отмечал В. И. Ленин,— отстает в своем развитии от промышленности — явление, свойственное всем капиталистическим странам и составляющее одну из наиболее глубоких причин нарушения пропорциональности между разными отраслями народного хозяйства, кризисов и дороговизны» [2, т. 27, с. 219].

Кризис паровой техники проявился не только в сельском хозяйстве, но и прежде всего в промышленности, а также на транспорте. Выразился он в жесткой зависимости технологии производства от размещения энергетических установок и возможностей механической системы передач. Индивидуальный

привод был нерентабелен из-за неэкономичности небольших паровых двигателей, а господство группового привода подчиняло размещение оборудования расположению силовых установок и возможностям трансмиссионной системы передач; при этом чем сложнее становилась система передач, тем больше было потерь энергии. Затруднялось также варьирование скоростями движения рабочих частей машин, ограничивалось число ступеней скоростей, исключалась обработка на повышенных скоростях. Все это делало размещение оборудования недостаточно рациональным, технологию производства — негибкой, сдерживало развитие массовопоточного производства и повышение качества продукции.

 

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