Потребительная стоимость инфраструктурных средств

Потребительная стоимость инфраструктурных средств труда состоит в их способности, соединившись с конкретным трудом в этой сфере, перемещать и сохранять потребительную стоимость произведенной продукции. Это означает создание ее дополнительных полезных свойств, состоящих в изменении места и времени потребления по отношению к месту и времени производства. Затраты труда, обеспечивающие создание этих свойств, увеличивают стоимость продукции, а их общественно необходимый уровень складывается под воздействием закономерностей разделения труда.

Как и в других сферах производства, материализация научных знаний в инфраструктурных средствах труда увеличивает совокупность потребительных стоимостей (лучшая сохранность, преодоление возрастающих пространственных и временных ограничений) и снижает их стоимость. Специфика этой материализации определяется особенностями самой производственной инфраструктуры, ее местом в общественном разделении труда.

Углубление разделения труда позволяет более полно использовать естественные производительные силы, совершенствовать технологию производства на основе его специализации и увеличения масштабов, интернационализировать развитие производительных сил. Одновременно все большая часть общественного труда должна перемещаться из базисных производств (промышленности, сельского хозяйства, строительства) в инфраструктурные отрасли, поскольку углубление разделения труда сопровождается опережающим по отношению к объемам производства нарастанием потоков продукции между производственными ячейками экономики, между производителями и потребителями. Это опережение тем больше, чем глубже специализация, шире рамки производственных связей, стирающие национальные границы, чем отдаленнее становятся друг от друга взаимосвязанные элементы производительных сил.

Способствуя повышению производительности общественного труда, его разделение означает экономию труда, но эта экономия требует дополнительных затрат инфраструктурного труда, что в определенном смысле является вычетом из общей экономии. Иначе говоря, складываются два вида затрат общественного труда: по месту и времени производства и по месту и времени потребления, а разность между ними составляют затраты труда в инфраструктурной сфере. Соответственно экономия труда выступает в двух разных измерениях — «по производству» и «по потреблению».

Совершенно очевидно, что когда речь идет об экономии труда, то всегда имеются в виду место и время потребления, так как только в потреблении производство получает свое завершение. Отсюда, однако, нельзя сделать вывод, что чем меньше затраты труда в инфраструктурной сфере, тем эффективнее развивается экономика. Поскольку, углубляя разделение труда, инфраструктура реализует свой эффект в экономии труда «по производству», то конечные результаты развития этой сферы складываются как соотношение между этим «растворенным» в производстве эффектом и затратами труда в самой инфраструктуре. Таким образом, не экономия затрат труда в сфере инфраструктуры, а экономия общественного труда по месту и времени потребления является критерием развития этой сферы и совершенствования соответствующих средств труда.

 

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