Потребительская стоимость средств

 «Потребительная стоимость машин, а не их стоимость, — писал К Маркс,— вот что увеличивает производительность земледельческого труда, как и всякого другого труда. Кроме того, можно было бы точно так же сказать, что производительность промышленного труда обусловлена прежде всего наличием сырья и его свойствами. Но здесь опять таки потребительная стоимость сырья, а не его стоимость, является условием производства для промышленности. Стоимость представляет собой скорее отрицательную сторону» .

Совершенствуя потребительную стоимость средств производства, научные знания в этом своем качестве определяют повышение производительности живого труда и соответствующую ему валовую экономию труда. Одновременно поскольку повышение производительности труда происходит за счет увеличения масштабов прошлого труда (стоимости средств производства), то складывается разница между валовой экономией живого труда и затратами прошлого, что определяет чистую экономию труда. Устойчивое (во времени) получение этой экономии возможно лишь при расширении масштабов прошлого труда, т. е. при превращении части годового продукта в источник увеличения накопленных средств производства. Тем самым часть чистой экономии труда должна использоваться на накопление средств производства, а полученная разница, определяемая как конечная экономия труда, может рассматриваться в качестве источника удовлетворения непроизводственных потребностей общества.

На масштабы чистой и конечной экономии труда влияет также совершенствование самих средств производства. С одной стороны, чем меньше затрат труда необходимо для воспроизводства той же потребительной стоимости средств производства (производственной мощности средств труда), тем больше чистая экономия труда и тем больше может быть направлено сэкономленного труда на удовлетворение непроизводственных потребностей — как непосредственно в данный момент времени, так и в будущем, через увеличение масштабов накопления средств производства. С другой стороны, воздействуя как на совершенствование потребительной стоимости средств производства, так и на снижение их стоимости, научные знания ведут также к моральному износу первого и второго рода уже накопленных средств производства. Возникающая при этом потеря части первоначальной стоимости накопленных средств производства, т. е. потеря части прошлого труда, является не фиктивной, а вполне реальной величиной; она выражается в увеличении перенесенной стоимости средств производства, а значит, в росте фонда возмещения годового общественного продукта и соответствующем уменьшении масштабов чистой и конечной экономии труда. Затраты общественно необходимого в прошлом труда перестают соответствовать изменившимся условиям воспроизводства; статика стоимости и потребительной стоимости вступает в противоречие с их динамикой. Тем самым экономия живого труда становится неотделимой от потерь прошлого труда; с точки зрения всего процесса расширенного воспроизводства важно, чтобы экономия превышала потери.

 

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