Повышение производительности

Следовательно, экономия общественного труда «по потреблению» возрастает за счет совершенствования инфраструктуры в том случае, когда ее вклад в экономический эффект разделения труда превышает дополнительные затраты труда на развитие этой сферы; в противном случае происходило бы свертывание разделения труда. Однако эта общеисторическая закономерность развития производительных сил с разной интенсивностью реализуется в различных конкретных исторических и экономических условиях, причем всегда во взаимодействии двух процессов — углубления разделения труда и развития инфраструктуры. Чем глубже становится разделение труда, тем быстрее должна развиваться инфраструктура, и наоборот, развитие последней позволяет полнее реализовать эффект разделения труда, способствует его углублению.

В истории часто наблюдались случаи, когда, например, затрудненность контактов, неразвитость средств сообщений приводили к натурализации хозяйства (так произошло в Западной Европе после распада Римской империи, а в России — в период татаромонгольского ига), а бурное развитие средств сообщений — к гигантскому экономическому прогрессу (как это случилось в период великих географических открытий). В современную эпоху, когда обобществление производительных сил в национальных границах все более перерастает в их интернационализацию, опережающий рост услуг инфраструктуры и ее быстрое техническое совершенствование стали непременным условием всего экономического прогресса.

Выделим те аспекты совершенствования средств труда в сфере производственной инфраструктуры, которые соответствуют критерию экономии общественного труда по месту и времени потребления.

Инфраструктурные средства труда, в особенности средства транспорта и связи, должны обеспечивать вовлечение в экономический оборот наиболее эффективных производительных сил, естественных и общественных, что означает экономию труда по месту и времени производства. В данном случае совершенствование средств труда должно способствовать снижению общих издержек производства за счет дополнительных затрат на транспорте и в связи. Здесь важна не минимизация последних, а увеличение разности между снижением общих издержек и их ростом в инфраструктуре. Предъявлять к этим инфраструктурным средствам труда локальные требования экономии труда —значит проигрывать в народнохозяйственной эффективности производства.



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