Природа человеческого труда

Природа человеческого труда делает управление имманентным любой трудовой деятельности, поскольку человек всегда управляет своим трудом, соизмеряя свои действия, ожидаемый и получаемый результат. Когда возникает кооперация, сначала однородных, а потом различных видов труда, управление превращается в разновидность специализированного конкретного труда; принимая разные социальные формы, этот труд выпол и расширенного воспроизводства), дадим более конкретные временные определения названным двум типам воспроизводственных циклов.

Схематически эти определения могут быть представлены следующим образом (в скобках указана условная продолжительность в годах соответствующего воспроизводственного цикла).

Прежде чем начинается процесс материализации научных знаний, они сами проходят свой воспроизводственный цикл — начиная от зарождения научной идеи, через этапы фундаментальных и прикладных исследований и до их воплощения в опытных образцах. Возможности сокращения цикла «наука — производство» зависят и от организации и оснащенности самой науки, и от меры ее интеграции с производством, и от углубления международного разделения научного труда, но в любых условиях он занимает в среднем несколько лет и определяет темп научно-технического прогресса в его исходном звене.



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