Процесс воспроизводства

Процесс воспроизводства, да и вообще развитие современных производительных сил не могут происходить без преобразования в той или иной мере экономии труда в его растущую оплату. Это связано как с самим процессом реализации, который в условиях расширенного воспроизводства требует расширения потребительского спроса, так и с усложнением труда и соответствующим повышением затрат на воспроизводство рабочей силы. В условиях когда капитал присваивает себе силы науки и превращает их в источник сначала добавочной прибыли, а затем устойчивой ренты за научные знания как элемент монопольной цены, только классовая борьба может «вырвать» из рук частных собственников, государственно-монополистического капитала хотя бы часть эффекта науки. В результате происходит увеличение доходов трудящихся за счет экономии труда, которая была получена на основе использования достижений науки и смогла быть отделена от капитала.

Соединение пауки с трудом, происходящее на базе общественной собственности на средства производства, позволяет планомерно реализовать эффект науки как в первичных доходах материального производства, так и в оплате труда, а затем с помощью перераспределительных отношений сформировать социально обоснованные конечные доходы. Именно при социализме становятся возможными и снижение цен, и повышение доходов как две альтернативные формы реализации экономии труда. Здесь не место рассматривать значение каждой из альтернатив и возможности их сочетания. Существенно, что обе они реальны и осуществляются практически.

Итак, экономия труда как разница между первоначальной и текущей стоимостью годового общественного продукта реализуется в конкретных формах движения стоимости, в системе распределительных отношений, в процессе удовлетворения общественных потребностей. Тем самым экономия труда, получаемая в результате материализации научных знаний,— органический и реальный элемент процесса расширенного воспроизводства.

Каким же образом формируется экономия труда, где находится ее источник? Ответ на этот вопрос означает также выяснение экономической роли различных форм материализации научных знаний.



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