Программы для ЭВМ

Очевидно, например, что труд землекопа легче переложить на плечи машины, чем труд монтажника, а механизировать ручные расчеты легче, чем автоматизировать разработку программ для ЭВМ. Общая закономерность состоит в том, что чем интенсивнее используются в конкретном процессе труда более высокие — сенсорные и умственные — естественные силы человека, тем более сложными и технически совершенными, а при неизменных условиях производства — и более трудоемкими должны быть орудия труда.

Сочетание повышения сложности и снижения трудоемкости орудий труда возможно только за счет материализации в них новых научных знаний. Присоединение к одной и той же величине прошлого труда все большего объема научных знаний позволяет снижать затраты труда на производство орудий труда и увеличивать их способность экономить живой труд, или, что то же самое, сохранять их способность экономить все более сложный живой труд.

Из сказанного следует, что от совершенствования орудий труда и от темпов повышения производительности труда в их производстве зависит общее повышение производительности труда, поэтому материализация научных знаний в орудиях труда, ведущая к снижению стоимости их растущего полезного эффекта, является главным звеном, где научные знания превращаются в источник экономии труда. С этим положением связан еще один, не менее важный вывод, заключающийся в том, что существуют экономические пределы накопления прошлого труда, что в определенном смысле существует общественно необходимый прошлый труд. Если накопление труда не сопровождается его обогащением, оплодотворением научными знаниями, то это снижает его эффективность, способность замещать живой труд, повышать его производительность.



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