Проникновение достижений науки

Проникновение достижений науки во все сферы производства зависело от того, в какой мере одновременно сочетались практическая потребность, технологическая готовность и уровень развития науки. Общая тенденция перевода техники производства на научную основу всегда складывалась таким образом, что экспансия науки шла от производств и видов труда, где господствуют относительно более простые формы движения материи, к более сложным, требующим более высокого уровня научного познания. Эта закономерность была отмечена КМарксом, когда он объяснял причины отставания сельского хозяйства от промышленности в период перехода последней на машинную основу [1, т. 26, ч. II, с. 115].

Логика развития науки, если ее фиксировать как некоторую, довольно условную последовательность наук, отражающую усложнение форм движения материи, есть движение от механики через физику и химию к биологии и, наконец, к наукам, непосредственно изучающим человека во всех его проявлениях, — экономике, социологии, психологии. Математика и философия встраиваются в этот ряд как универсальные, метанауки. Не вдаваясь пока в содержание этого процесса восхождения научного познания (об этом речь будет идти ниже), обратим внимание на практическую сторону вопроса — связь такой динамики науки с развитием техники.

Переход техники на научную основу начался с тех сфер, где производство базируется на механических формах движения,—навигация (механика небесных светил), разнообразные машины. Феноменологическая физика, сложившаяся в результате исследований непосредственно наблюдаемых явлений, стала основой паровой энергетики. Позднее — уже во второй половине XIX в.— и на чисто научной базе возникли электроэнергетика и химическая промышленность (сначала оспой пая, а затем органическая химия, что также соответствув! логике научного познания). Биология, перешедшая от ОПИСа тельной стадии, этапа систематизации к созданию научной ГвО рии лишь в конце XIX в., смогла вместе с основной химией стать практически полезной лишь на рубеже XIX—XX вн. А пе реворот, совершенный К Марксом и Ф. Энгельсом в социально экономической мысли, стал основой общественной практики лишь в XX в.

Переход технической практики на научную основу еще ас завершен. Там же, где техника уже базируется на научных знаниях, эта закономерность проявляется как смена техпнче ских форм по мере углубления научного познания. Дополняю щей стороной этой закономерности является существование и развитие техники, обязанной своим происхождением преиМ) щественно практическому опыту. Там, где наука еще не вступила в «свои права», еще не обеспечивает всю гамму об щественных потребностей, где прогресс порождается и будет порождаться повседневной практикой, здравым смыслом и ни туицией, там эмпирические знания, опыт и техника, созданная на их основе, остаются незаменимыми и продолжают развиваться. Технический прогресс на основе науки продолжает тем самым сосуществовать с эмпирическим развитием техники.

 

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