Разные виды конкретного труда

Разные виды конкретного труда с разной интенсивностью используют природные свойства человека, в разных сочетаниях в них присутствуют элементы физического и умственного труда. Но во всех нормальных случаях человек одновременно использует в процессе труда все свои естественные силы, и их нельзя свести к одному качеству.

В «Диалектике природы» Ф. Энгельс критиковал антинаучные попытки свести труд к какой-либо единой физической единице, например перенести термодинамическую категорию работы в политическую экономию. В связи с этим он писал: «. .лишь совершенно незначительную, второстепенную часть экономической работы (поднимание тяжестей и т. д.) можно выразить в килограммометрах»; и далее: «. . .пусть попробуют выразить какойлибо skilled labour (квалифицированный труд) в килограммометрах и попытаются определить на основании этого заработную плату!» .

Следовательно, можно говорить о структуре (элементах) абстрактного труда и о возможности разного участия в нем естественных сил человека, что зависит от конкретной формы труда. В этом пункте абстрактный и конкретный труд взаимосвязаны: конкретный труд осуществим лишь при одновременном использовании всех естественных сил человека. Вместе с тем существуют определенные границы их использования. Нормальное функционирование человека в процессе труда требует, чтобы его конкретные виды развивались на основе умножения, а не деформации его естественных сил.

Из сказанного следует, что научный труд, так же как и всякий другой конкретный вид труда, означает расходование естественных сил человека и в этом отношении может быть сведен к абстрактному труду. Однако главная особенность научного труда — его интеллектуальная природа означает также преимущественное использование одной из естественных способностей человека — его способности к мышлению. В реализации умственных способностей участвуют и все другие его способности; без зрительного и слухового восприятия, эмоций и физических усилий не может быть и интеллектуального процесса, но все же структура абстрактного труда здесь особая.

Сведение научного труда к абстрактной основе объединяет его со всеми другими видами труда и одновременно ставит его в положение особо сложного труда, поскольку он связан с повышенной интенсивностью использования наиболее сложных (интеллектуальных и в определенной мере сенсорных) естественных сил человека.



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