Рост производительности труда

Рост производительности труда, снижая стоимость единицы продукции, ведет к более быстрому росту годового продукта как совокупности потребительных стоимостей по сравнению с годовым валовым продуктом как суммы их стоимостей. В результате образуются две разные величины годового продукта, их две разные динамики и разные источники роста. Объяснение этих различий лежит в анализе особой роли научных знаний в расширении производства.

Известно, что стоимость годового общественного (валового) продукта складывается из стоимости, вновь созданной абстрактным общественно необходимым трудом, и перенесенной стоимости средств производства , причем, как подчеркивал К Маркс, свойством сохранять стоимость прошлого труда обладает только живой труд в его конкретной, полезной форме . Повышение производительности труда увеличивает вновь созданную стоимость в той мере, в какой это повышение является результатом усложнения труда или его интенсификации (уплотнения во времени). Одновременно, поскольку источником повышения производительности труда является его возрастающая вооруженность орудиями и другими средствами труда, что позволяет при одних и тех же затратах живого труда перерабатывать все больше предметов труда, то перенесенная стоимость растет значительно быстрее вновь созданной; в этом же направлении действует сокращение жизненного цикла средств труда в связи с повышением производительности труда.

Таким образом, в данном аспекте воспроизводства величина и динамика валового годового продукта определяются его стоимостью, а источник ее роста — увеличение затрат живого труда с учетом сложности и интенсивности и повышение производительности труда, предполагающее увеличение перенесенной стоимости. Иными словами, единственным источником стоимости годового продукта является труд, живой и прошлый, овеществленный в средствах производства.

Годовой общественный продукт как совокупность потребительных стоимостей является результатом конкретного, полезного труда. Будучи качественно несопоставимыми, разнородные потребительные стоимости и их полезные эффекты непосредственно не могут быть сведены к единой основе. Не случайно попытки прямого соизмерения полезностей не ушли дальше общетеоретических рассуждений.



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