Сдвиги в экономике

Сдвиги в экономике сопровождались изменениями в социальных условиях, юридических нормах, в психологии людей; складывались идеология и практика буржуазного общества — равенства людей в соответствии с их имущественным, денежным положением.

Определяющая, регулирующая роль закона стоимости в развитии общественных отношений, явившаяся итогом длительной исторической эволюции, означала переворот в исходных условиях развития науки и техники. Закон стоимости в его специфически капиталистической форме стал диктовать науке и технике

критер       аправления их развития. Поскольку объектом присвоения в условиях капитализма становится прибавочная стоимость, ее превращенная форма — прибыль, то совершенствование техники капиталистического производства уже на первых шагах его развития регулируется прибылью. Практически это означает, что вновь созданная стоимость должна систематически превышать оплаченный труд, созидающий эту стоимость. Возникновение и расширенное воспроизводство капиталистических отношений становятся возможными только в том случае, когда труд отделяется от орудий труда и сначала формально, а затем реально подчиняется капиталу. Содержание этого процесса, его объективная обусловленность, как известно, раскрыты К. Марксом в I томе «Капитала».

В своей теории первоначального накопления, производства абсолютной и относительной прибавочной стоимости К Маркс показал, что если насилие и было «повивальной бабкой капитализма», то воспроизводство, тем более расширенное, капиталистических производственных отношений становится возможным лишь на основе адекватной капитализму технической базы — машинного производства, в результате систематического замещения ручного труда машинами и механизмами.

Машины полностью отрезали возврат к прошлому — господству мелкого товарного производства, основанному на ручном труде. Они настолько удешевляли производство, что ручной труд оказывался неконкурентоспособным; так были разорены механическим ткацким станком в XVIII в. английские, а в XIX в. — индийские ткачи. Стоимость первоначального капитала, необходимого для приобретения машин, оказывалась настолько высокой по сравнению с орудиями ручного труда, что собственниками машин могли стать лишь «избранные».

Главным фактором, обеспечившим победу машин над ручным трудом, была высокая эффективность процесса замещения; экономия живого труда, вызываемая использованием машин, значительно превышала затраты на производство самих машин. О природе этого процесса замещения уже шла речь выше, в главе 2. В период первой промышленной революции, когда в массовом масштабе стали применяться машины, процесс замещения ручного труда происходил исключительно эффективно. Низкий уровень концентрации капитала, полное отсутствие государственной поддержки или каких-либо значительных субсидий, жесткий механизм стихийной рыночной конкуренции — все это требовало от первых машин, выражаясь современным языком, высокого уровня рентабельности, способности почти сразу продемонстрировать свои экономические преимущества.

 

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