Средняя продолжительность жизни

По оценкам демографов, жизнь наших предков в бронзовом и каменном веках продолжалась не более 18 лет, в период расцвета Римской империи—25—30 лет, в Европе периода феодализма — 21 год, в Европе расцвета капитализма (XIX в.) —34 года, тогда как в современную эпоху средняя продолжительность жизни превышает в развитых странах 70 лет, а в среднем достигла 60 лет [70, с. 61]. Если допустить, что реальная способность к более или менее плодотворному труду начинается с 13—15 лет, то возможный период трудовой деятельности увеличился в среднем с 6— 8 лет в период феодализма до примерно 20 лет в XIX в. (в капиталистической Европе) и до 40—45 лет в современную эпоху (с учетом окончания периода труда в 55—60 лет). Очевидно, что продолжительность нормального периода обучения и затраты на него совместимы со средней продолжительностью жизни и труда человека, лишь начиная с эпохи расцвета капитализма в XIX в.; неслучайно именно в XIX в. возникло массовое общее и специальное образование.

Естественно, что и повышение уровня образования, и увеличение продолжительности жизни человека, в том числе периода трудоспособности, органически взаимосвязаны; в основе обоих процессов лежит в конечном счете научно-технический прогресс как единое целое. Однако сохранение личности и здоровья человека, а значит, и его знаний и опыта играло и играет все возрастающую самостоятельную роль.

Накопление научных знаний в человеке, их соединение с трудом стали возможны лишь тогда, когда каждый «средний» человек стал способен за свою жизнь получить и «вернуть» свои знания и затраты на них, когда носителями знаний стали трудящиеся массы, а не отдельные привилегированные члены общества. Такая возможность возникла впервые в Европе XIX в., и это явилось одной из главных предпосылок научно-технического прогресса.

Следовательно, повышение образовательноквалификационного уровня, сложности труда, сохранение и развитие их на протяжении всей жизни человека требуют возрастающих затрат труда в сфере воспроизводства рабочей силы, повышения их доли в общих затратах общественного труда. Если еще не в столь отдаленном историческом прошлом затраты общественного труда по передаче, усвоению и сохранению научных знаний, по расширенному воспроизводству качества рабочей силы были ничтожно малы, то в современную эпоху эти затраты количественно соизмеримы с затратами труда в самом производстве1. Всеобщность научных знаний, помноженная на возрастающую способность человека к их накоплению и сохранению, превращает рабочую силу в непосредственную и наиболее динамичную форму материализации научных знаний, в непосредственный источник увеличения стоимости и повышения производительности труда.



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