Средства производства и экономия живого труда

При этом поскольку источником стоимости может быть только труд, живой или овеществленный, то он является единственным фактором экономического роста в его стоимостном аспекте.

И напротив, поскольку в создании потребительных стоимостей принимают участие и конкретный труд, и все полезные свойства вещественных элементов производства, то источниками богатства являются не только труд, но и средства производства. «Относительно труда,—писал К. Маркс,—поскольку он производит потребительные стоимости, ошибочно утверждать, что он есть единственный источник произведенного им, а именно —вещественного богатства» . Это значит также, что средства производства, не являющиеся результатом труда (плодородные земли, энергия воды и т. п.), не имеют стоимости; они могут участвовать в формировании вещественного богатства, но не стоимости общественного продукта [1, т. 23, с. 215].

Двоякая роль средств производства в формировании стоимости и потребительной стоимости выражается также в том, что в первом случае они выступают как потребляемые средства производства, теряя лишь ту часть их стоимости, которая переносится на продукт труда, а во втором случае —как применяемые средства производства, целиком участвующие в создании потребительных стоимостей. Иными словами, стоимость средств производства (точнее — средств труда) лишь частично входит в стоимость годового продукта, тогда как в образовании соответствующей массы потребительных стоимостей она участвует целиком.

К. Маркс показал также, что потеря средствами производства их стоимости происходит одновременно и в меру потери их потребительной стоимости, причем если потребительная стоимость может участвовать в процессе производства, не имея стоимости, то обратная ситуация невозможна — без потребительной стоимости не может быть стоимости. Применительно к средствам производства это означает, что в той мере, в какой их полезные свойства, взаимодействуя с конкретным трудом, обеспечивают производство новых потребительных стоимостей, в такой мере они сохраняют и свою стоимость. Потребительная стоимость средств производства подтверждает каждый раз свое существование и тем самым свою стоимость участием в производстве других потребительных стоимостей, а обеспечивается это целесообразным, полезным характером конкретного труда .

 

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