Тенденция развития производственных сил

Общая же тенденция первоначального этапа развития производительных сил состояла в том, что чем доступнее и богаче были естественные производительные силы, тем быстрее происходило развитие общественных производительных сил. Земля — и наиболее доступный вид естественных производительных сил, и наиболее важный с точки зрения удовлетворения первичных жизненных потребностей, а ее естественное плодородие — самая мощная даровая сила природы, доступная человечеству на первых этапах его развития. «В земледелии,— писал К Маркс,— раньше, чем во всех других отраслях производства, в крупных размерах применяются для процесса производства силы природы. Применение сил природы в промышленности бросается в глаза только на более высокой ступени развития промышленности» .

На более поздних этапах развития человечества сочетание естественных производительных сил, характеристики их обилия, доступности и качества оказывали иногда решающее влияние на общие темпы развития. Именно такое особое сочетание различных природных ресурсов было одной из главных причин первой промышленной революции в странах, прилегающих к Северному морю (Англия, Голландия, Фландрия, нижний Рейн). В этом регионе соединялись все виды природных ресурсов, достаточно обильных и доступных, которые были необходимы для совершения промышленного переворота,— леса, плодородные почвы при устойчивом увлажнении и температурном режиме, лучшая в мире шерсть, обильные уловы рыбы, выходящие на поверхность месторождения угля, железной руды, медь и олово, удобные морские пути сообщения [16, с. 665]. Ясно, что эти предпосылки были далеко не достаточными для совершения промышленной революции, но они были необходимы; без них история развивалась бы иными путями. (, Особая роль естественных производительных сил на переломных этапах развития человечества (возникновение первых цивилизаций, промышленная революция) всегда проявлялась как результат их сочетания с общественными производительными силами, с совершенствованием процесса труда. Сочетание благоприятных естественных условий само по себе, без участия человека, не может быть источником развития общественных производительных сил. В ранних цивилизациях поливного земледелия только благодаря труду плодородная почва «соединялась» с водой; именно необходимость такого соединения породила развитие общественных производительных сил (в первую очередь ирригационных систем), привела к большой концентрации принудительного труда и тем самым к возникновению первых государственных образований.



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