Валовая экономия труда

Для пояснения понятий валовой, чистой и конечной экономии труда и их взаимосвязей с воспроизводством средств производства прибегнем к их простой формализации.

Экономия труда, возникшая в результате использования средств производства, отражает процесс замещения живого труда прошлым. Чем меньше необходимо прошлого труда для замещения той же величины живого, тем больше замещающая способность прошлого труда, выше его эластичность по отношению к живому; очевидно, что чем сложнее живой труд, тем более сложными и технически совершенными должны быть средства производства. Эластичность замещения тем выше, чем быстрее происходит совершенствование самих средств производства—развитие их полезных свойств, делающих возможным сам процесс замещения, облегчающих его, а также снижение затрат труда на создание и воспроизводство этих свойств. Объективная основа такого замещения состоит в том, что каждая единица прошлого труда способна не только воспроизводить саму себя (в статике и динамике), но и давать дополнительный эффект — конечную экономию живого труда. Если бы трансформация живого труда в прошлый была только сменой формы эквивалентного количества человеческого труда, то исчезла бы материальная основа повышения его производительности, а значит, экономии.

На самом деле именно процесс овеществления живого труда в средствах производства становится при прочих равных условиях источником повышения его производительности. Объясняется это двойным эффектом преобразования живого труда в прошлый — эффектом умножения и эффектом накопления (сохранения) труда.

Эффект умножения проявляется в том, что, воплощаясь в средствах производства, труд приобретает способность использовать силы и законы природы, заключенные в потребительной стоимости средств производства. Любой целесообразный труд, заключенный в средствах производства, умножает свои естественные силы за счет сил природы. Уже самые примитивные орудия труда стали такими «усилителями» физических возможностей человека, которые оторвали его от животного мира. И каждый последующий шаг в совершенствовании средств производства превращал полезные для человека свойства живой и неживой материи в многократно умноженные физические, сенсорные и интеллектуальные силы человеческого труда. Превышение полезного эффекта, получаемого в результате использования средств производства, над трудовыми усилиями, необходимыми для их производства, и дает экономию труда. Становясь устойчивым, а затем и растущим компонентом производства, это превышение эффекта над затратами превращается в материальную основу всего исторического развития.

 

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