Всеобщность научных знаний

Сформулированное понимание общественно необходимого научного труда не ставит его в какое-то особое, привилегированное положение по отношению к другим видам труда; каждый из них необходим в меру общественной потребности в создаваемых им потребительных стоимостях. Существуют, однако, такие свойства научных знаний, научного труда, как их преимущественно интеллектуальный характер и всеобщность, влияющие на формирование общественно необходимого труда в этой сфере.

Сложность научного труда выражается как в особой роли интеллектуальных сил труда, нагрузке преимущественно на наиболее высокие, умственные способности человека, так и в повышенных затратах на воспроизводство рабочей силы. Эти затраты связаны не только с длительным сроком подготовки специалиста в той или иной области, который составляет в настоящее время вместе с общим образованием до двух десятков лет, по и с особой структурой возникающих при этом потребностей (качественный состав питания при его невысокой калорийности, высокий удельный вес предметов культурного обихода и различных информационных носителей, повышенная реакция на условия труда и т. д.). Очевидно, что высокая сложность научного труда увеличивает общественно необходимые затраты и тем самым стоимость научных знаний. Как отмечал К. Маркс, «труд, который имеет значение более высокого, более сложного труда по сравнению со средним общественным трудом, есть проявление такой рабочей силы, образование которой требует более высоких издержек, производство которой стоит большего рабочего времени» .

 

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