Вторая половина научно-технической революции

В последние десятилетия XX в. начали складываться признаки новой, второй волны научно-технической революции. Ее наиболее очевидные черты сегодня — коренная перестройка технологии производства, всех сторон жизни на основе электроники, а также регулирование во все возрастающих масштабах биологических процессов. Автоматизация охватывает все более сложные технические системы и придает им свойства целостности и саморегулируемости; электроника и новые средства связи ведут к информационному взрыву, ко всеобщей доступности возрастающих потоков информации. Биотехнология и генная инженерия позволяют многократно увеличить продуктивность биологических систем. Вместе с тем новый этап научно-технической революции вызывает к жизни невиданные силы разрушения, обостряет экологические проблемы, делает в условиях частной собственности вполне реальным отделение огромных масс трудящихся от орудий труда, углубляет пропасть между передовыми в научно-техническом отношении и отсталыми странами. Все это еще более обостряет историческую необходимость смены общественных отношений, обобществления и на этой основе сознательного регулирования материально-технической базы и результатов научно-технической революции.

Теперь попытаемся раскрыть эти общие положения на конкретных фактах, характеризующих наиболее важные, революционные сдвиги в развитии науки и техники. При этом речь идет не об анализе всего конкретного содержания этих сдвигов, а о выявлении логики развертывания научно-технического прогресса. По этой причине упор делается не на характеристику наиболее важных современных достижений науки и техники, что не входит в задачу данной книги на генезис научно-технической революции. Исходя из этого отдельные и, как представляется, основные сферы научно-технического прогресса (машины и технологии, материалы, энергия, производство продовольствия) рассматриваются с точки зрения внутренней логики их развития, в связи с действием закона экономии труда.

 

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