Вторая структура производительных сил

Вторая структура производительных сил, характеризующая соотношение производственных звеньев экономики, отражает сложившийся уровень разделения и кооперации труда, является выражением процесса обобществления производства. Не повторяя того, что уже было сказано по этому вопросу, выделим те звенья, ячейки производительных сил, которые образуют его организационную структуру, понимаемую, как это уже неоднократно подчеркивалось, в объективном смысле.

Отдельные звенья экономики, формы производства формируются как результат особой тесноты, «плотности» технологических и экономических связей, которые выделяют данную форму производства и ее конкретную ячейку из всей экономической системы. Такие «уплотнения» не образуют в реальной действительности строгой иерархии, они могут совмещаться, «наплывать» друг на друга, поскольку отдельные ячейки экономики в соответствии с их технологическими, отраслевыми, территориальными характеристиками могут одновременно входить в разные производственные системы. Поэтому всякие классификации форм производства условны и отражают какойто преимущественный признак, а не всю систему технологических и экономических связей.

Необходимо прежде всего соотнести формы производства, организации производительных сил с двумя типами связей — технологическими и экономическими, имея в виду их взаимообусловленность. Технологические связи определяются методами и ступенями преобразования исходной продукции в конечную; при этом понятия исходной и конечной продукции определяются самой технологией производства, степенью связанности отдельных ее звеньев в едином производственном процессе. Экономические связи реализуются через обмен, в реальной действительности опосредствуются отношениями собственности; с их помощью взаимодействуют экономические интересы, часто противоречивые, разных участников процесса воспроизводства. По своей природе технологические связи носят последовательный или параллельно последовательный характер и не подчинены принципу эквивалентности, т. е. продукции, выходящей за пределы данного технологического звена, вовсе не должна противостоять эквивалентная по стоимости продукция, входящая в этот процесс. И наоборот, экономические связи имеют характер преимущественно эквивалентного обмена, без которого невозможно нормальное воспроизводство конкретного экономического объекта.

 

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