Закономерность экономии труда

Выше отмечалось также, что научное познание выполняет не только экономические функции, что наука возникла в результате воздействия не только экономических потребностей, но и социально-культурных процессов, а также потребностей развития военной техники, или, как ее называл К Маркс, «человекоубойной промышленности». И все таки главной объективной функцией науки была и остается ее экономическая функция — повышение производительности общественного труда и на этой основе усложнение общественных потребностей.

Итак, закономерность экономии труда, снижения уровня его общественно необходимых затрат объективно обусловливает масштабы общественно необходимого научного труда, который обеспечивает эту экономию. Хотя овладение процессом познания и его рационализация повышают производительность научного труда, снижают его неопределенность, но в целом, однако, усиление закономерности экономии общественного труда в сочетании с усложнением общественных потребностей ведет к увеличению масштабов и доли научного труда.

Свойство научных знаний экономить затраты труда придает им особую общественную потребительную стоимость — способность снижать стоимость производимой продукции (общественно необходимые затраты труда). Вспомним по аналогии, что К Маркс раскрыл экономическую природу рабочей силы при капитализме как товара, имеющего особую потребительную стоимость — способность создавать прибавочную стоимость. Общественная потребительная стоимость научных знаний способствует не «самовозрастанию» стоимости, а ее уменьшению и тем самым росту общественного богатства. Именно поэтому наука превращается при социализме во всеобщую производительную силу общественного труда.

В отличие от отдельных конкретных научных знаний, потребительная стоимость которых определяется спецификой изучаемых законов развития природы и общества, общественная потребительная стоимость научных знаний присуща всей их совокупности, а степень ее развития выражается в мере снижения общественно необходимых затрат труда в результате использования научных знаний. Общественная потребительная стоимость научных знаний определяется достигаемой в результате их применения экономией общественного труда. Из этого положения следует, что общественная потребность в экономии труда формирует общественно необходимые затраты научного труда, а значит, и стоимость научных знаний.

 

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