Закономерности организации производственных сил

Попытаемся выделить некоторые закономерности организации производительных сил, научное познание и использование которых в наибольшей мере влияют на общественную производительную силу труда, на масштабы ее экономии. Одновременно это будет ответом на вопрос о материализации научных знаний в формах организации производительных сил.

Развитие производительных сил состоит не только в совершенствовании их отдельных элементов, но и в образовании их все более рациональных комбинаций, способствующих росту производительности общественного труда. В общем виде эти комбинации образуются в результате «пересечения» двух структур: материальных элементов производительных сил (отдельных видов конкретного труда и средств производства) и производственных звеньев экономики (начиная от технологического уровня и кончая мировым хозяйством). Соотношения и пропорции между отдельными элементами каждой структуры, их взаимодействие влияют на общую эффективность функционирования производительных сил.

В рамках первой структуры производительных сил уровень эффективности производства, масштабы экономии труда меняются в зависимости от тех количественных соотношений, в которых находятся между собой отдельные виды труда и средств производства. Здесь необходимо выделить два типа взаимодействия — дополнение и замещение и соответственно два разных свойства отдельных видов труда и средств производства. Оба свойства —и дополняемость, и замещаемость — происходят от наличия в разных элементах производительных сил качественно различных или схожих (иногда тождественных) потребительских свойств. Качественно различные потребительные стоимости могут только дополнять друг друга, а схожие (тем более тождественные) могут замещать друг друга. Проявления этих двух свойств столь же разнообразны, сколь разнообразны и сами потребительные стоимости: металл и энергия, жилье и пища могут при прочих равных условиях лишь дополнять друг друга, а нефть и уголь, синтетическое и натуральное волокно способны друг друга замещать.

Если бы каждый элемент производительных сил имел лишь одно полезное свойство и каждое полезное свойство было бы присуще лишь одному такому элементу, то действовал бы лишь один тип взаимодействия —дополнение. На самом деле каждый элемент производительных сил обладает рядом полезных свойств, каждое из которых присуще нескольким его элементам; нефть, например, может служить и топливом, и сырьем, а теплотворной способностью обладают, помимо нефти, многие виды полезных ископаемых. При этом чем более сложными (агрегированными) являются совокупности потребительных стоимостей, тем больше возникает сфер их взаимного замещения, и наоборот, чем более частный, индивидуальный (дезагрегированный) характер имеет данная группа потребительных стоимостей, тем сильнее проявляется свойство дополняемости.



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