Замещение живого труда

Следовательно, замещение живого труда прошлым и повышение эластичности этого замещения есть процесс динамический, зависящий от продолжительности периода, в рамках которого он разворачивается. Чем короче период, тем менее воспроизводимы накопленные средства производства, тем более они дополняют, а не замещают живой труд; и наоборот, удлинение периода повышает их воспроизводимость, их способность замещать живой труд. Экономия труда является, таким образом, функцией времени.

и средства труда или в предметы потребления. Этот период охватывает два цикла — время производства и время обраще1ш г, в пределах первого происходит трансформация исходных Предметов труда в конечную продукцию данного производства, | пределах второго — перемещение готовой продукции (во вре1. IIп и в пространстве) от производителя к потребителю. Чем продолжительнее каждый из периодов, тем больше предметов (руда находится в форме незавершенного производства, готовой продукции и в пути.

Продолжительность времени производства определяется пи интенсивностью самих производственных процессов, т. е. сковостью протекания соответствующих механических, физических, химических и биологических процессов, соотношением рабочего периода (времени непосредственного воздействия па предметы труда) и времени производства (с учетом различим производственных пауз). Очевидно, что научно-технический прогресс способствует сокращению времени производства, Особенно за счет интенсификации технологических процессов И лучшей организации производства, но вместе с тем происходит усложнение выпускаемой продукции, удлиняющее, особенно в машиностроении, продолжительность производственных циклов.

Время обращения зависит как от временной и пространственной разобщенности производства и потребления, различных элементов производительных сил, так и от уровня развита инфраструктурных средств труда. На продолжительность того периода воздействуют и чисто экономические факторы, определяющие рациональный уровень производственных запасов. Как уже отмечалось, углубление общественного разделения ведет к усилению разобщенности элементов производительных сил, а развитие инфраструктуры способствует ее непрорывному преодолению. В результате, охватывая элементы, псе более отдаленные друг от друга во времени и пространстве, расширение и техническое совершенствование инфраструктуры по меньшей мере стабилизируют время обращения, В в ряде случаев сокращают его.

 

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