Источники водоснабжения

 При выборе места для нового колхозного поселка большое внимание должно быть уделено вопросам благоустроенного водоснабжения населения и животноводческих ферм. В условиях орошаемых районов благоустройство водоснабжения играет значительную роль, так как оросительные системы на зиму должны выключаться из работы, чтобы улучшить мелиоративное состояние территории. Поэтому нельзя ориентироваться на круглогодовое водоснабжение из каналов. Источниками водоснабжения могут быть реки, родники, грунтовые или артезианские воды. В новых поселках должны быть решены вопросы энергоснабжения как для производственных, так и для бытовых нужд. Электрическая энергия должна широко применяться в хозяйствах орошаемых районов. Нередко эту энергию можно получить на самой оросительной системе, устраивая гидроэлектростанции на крупных каналах или отводах от них.

В связи с новыми задачами, поставленными перед орошаемым земледелием, необходимо наиболее рационально использовать поливные земли, отводя максимум площади под посевы ценных культур, снизить процент земель под малорентабельными угодьями, ввести травопольную систему земледелия и т. д. В Янги-Юльском районе Узбекской ССР намечается за 5—6 лет расширить орошаемые площади примерно на 30 процентов, урожайность хлопчатника, равную сейчас примерно 35 центнерам на гектар, повысить на 30—37 процентов, производительность труда увеличить в 2—2,5 раза.

Новая система орошения требует перестройки поливных участков, увеличения их размеров до 40— 60 и более гектаров при орошении зерновых культур и до 20—40 и более гектаров в хлопководческих районах. На землях со сложным рельефом при наличии густой дренажной сети или с большим количеством древесных насаждений вдоль постоянных каналов можно допустить поливные участки площадью в 10—20 гектаров.

В связи с укрупнением поливных участков предстоят большие работы по пересадке ценных древонасаждений с ликвидируемых постоянных каналов. В некоторых районах Ферганской долины, Ташкентской области, Чарджоусской области, в Азербайджане и других республиках предстоит пересадить от 10 до 16 и более деревьев на одном гектаре орошаемой площади. Вырубка шелковицы и ценных плодовых деревьев с ликвидируемых оросительных каналов допускается только в тех случаях, когда по своему возрасту или продуктивности они не представляют ценности и пересадка их нецелесообразна.

Работы по пересадке деревьев и посадке молодых плантаций должны развернуться широким фронтом с осени 1950 года. Отставания работ по древонасаждениям допускать нельзя, так как это может задержать переустройство оросительных систем.

 

 

 

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