«Изъяснения» Глотова

Через два года после Басова ушел в море тобольский крестьянин, бывший спутник Беринга, Михайло Неводчиков. Он сознательно взял курс в сторону от Командорских островов и после тяжелого шестидневного плавания подошел к самому западному из Алеутских островов — Атту. Здесь промышленники зимовали. Неводчикову принадлежит честь открытия так называемых Ближних островов Алеутской гряды. Составленная им подробная карта вместе с его рапортом была отправлена в сенат. Вскоре последовал именной указ о производстве Неводчикова, в награду за его смелое плавание, в штурманы.

Несколько позднее были открыты острова Крысьи и Андрияновские. Последние были названы по имени смелого морехода и открывателя Андрияна Толстых.

Наконец, самые восточные из Алеутских островов — Лисьи — были открыты предприимчивым и искусным мореходом Степаном Глотовым в 1759 году. «Изъяснения» Глотова об открытых им островах и карта были отправлены в Петербург. Таким образом, открытие Алеутских островов было начато и завершено русскими мореходами.

В 1768—1769 годах на Алеутских островах работала правительственная экспедиция под начальством капитана П. К. Креницина и его помощника М. Д. Левашева. Галиот «Св. Екатерина» под командой Креницина зимовал на острове Унимаке, а гукор «Св. Павел», которым командовал Левашов, на Уналашке. Экспедиция собрала ценный географический и этнографический материал и составила подробную карту Алеутских островов.

Среди русских мореходов, бороздивших воды Тихого океана в XVIII веке, были выдающиеся деятели, искусные и опытные штурманы, наблюдательные и умные люди, ставившие интересы отечества выше коммерческих интересов своих хозяев-купцов. Часто на свой страх и риск, стремясь к новым открытиям и подвигам, плыли они на восток, минуя уже знакомые острова с богатыми лежбищами котиков и бобров. Такие знаменитые мореходы, как Андриан Толстых, Степан Глотов, Потап Зайков, Дмитрий Полутов, Евстрат Деларов, Афанасий Очередин, Дмитрий Бочаров, Герасим Измайлов и другие, совершали далекие и опасные плавания. Благо – даря их трудам и подвигам, задолго до появления других европейских мореплавателей, были изучены Алеутская гряда и побережье полуострова Аляска, открыт большой остров Кадьяк и другие острова вокруг него, Кенайский и Чугацкий заливы и устье реки Медной.

Лишь в 1778 году в Беринговом море появилась первая иностранная экспедиция под начальством англичанина Джемса Кука. Со свойственной большинству английских мореплавателей бесцеремонностью по отношению к правам других народов Кук дал английские названия многим пунктам, задолго до него открытым русскими мореплавателями В хвастливых записках о своем плавании он поспешил приписать себе честь открытия северозападного побережья Америки и Берингова пролива.

 

 

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